Hi all

How to pass laws as MACRON and other telling lies about coulibaly and the other 2 brothers, asleep the people with your lies franc-Masonic, admittedly, they killed them, like some others, but this is not a reason to smear it even more, to always lie and speak reproachfully on them, it does you genes not, have flingués them , with the forces of order, who obey your orders, you could take them live, but, no, want, why not indeed!NOT! they were terrorists!, they could tell you the networks, though, is not clear and after you spit on their dead, they are dead left, there is not a day on television, there is a new fact, a new invention, in short, a lie more in the media, more no media is credible or truthful, we knew that the media are lying , but now, it’s « open TV » or « open lies »

In, fact, another thing, nothing to do, but, I do not at all believe, but at all, the history of this Baker, that is supposedly accused of being a bad Muslim, it is true

The religious police is severe, certainly, but then has this as some « fun » to do such in France , under what authority!, it would surprise me very frankly there, I have a doubt, but, frankly, I do me amuserais not with it, if I was him.

Has put it, on account of stupidity and I will point lie .

AH, for once, I appreciated, regional info, because I listened to a kid, that has stuck me, but taping, not the black? though, him also but I thought rather than of front, this kid, who tells the truth about the Muslim religion, that out of the mouths of children

I’m super happy, because there is at least 1, which has drawn, which is more than promising for the future, when I see that these seniors are the party that they are UMPet FNet why not PS, brief the France… what!

For more info

BEHOLD, what The SUPREMACIST(VALLS, TAUBIRA and Holland,) who want to make FRANCEA DICTATORSHIP , the third REICH, it is not here, here, it is the France.CERTAINS SE are fallopian tubes of time CE who do should duration steps very long, if ILS Y move and, CA, it is less obvious? BUT, A DICTATORSHIP, ANYWAY! SOME!REALLY want to see the world, once, if is LANCE, it ESTCOMME to stop, UNTRAIN to full speed

You are accused, MORLAIX, SIVENS, GAZA (events on the france whole for the cessation of the bombing), it was nothing, dog pee, attention, you see, after all!

21 01-2015-17:45: Tunis: kingpin Essebsi invited by Boueflika for an official visit

21 01-2015-17:41: Tunis: Béji caïd Essebsi is a chance for the Tunisia, according to the…

21 01-2015-17:46: Tunis: Mahmoud Abbas on a visit to Tunisia

The president of the Republic of the Congo on a visit to Tunisia

Ya a symposium, a bricklayer franc teuf, in Africa, we know, is that there are not bad,

Almost all else, those who are part of Africa, not France

Ah, this is why that bouteflika, wanted to remain, ah agree,.

Road strike: the move could escalate because negotiations with employers

After the failure of negotiations Tuesday night, the movement to strike in the road sector could grow due to lack of negotiations with employers.

Indeed, in the negotiations, employers had proposed an increase of 2%, unGAG for the lowest wages of the collective and an increase of 1% for executives and agents de maîtrise while the trade unions CGT, FO, CFTC and CFE – CGC claimed 5% increase for all.

The general delegate of the FNTR had said in a statement: « businesses are not able to give 5% of upgradings. Unfortunately, this economic assessment is not shared and we very deeply regret «.» On the Trade Union side, the Secretary general of the CFTC transport considers that employers we were told by a finger of honour»

As it embarks on the 4th day of road strike, the movement could harden and Secretary of State Alain Vidalies strongly encourages »a resumption of discussions between partners to reach a wage agreement ».»

Road strike: operation snail, petroleum deposits blocking

It is this Sunday that the road transport of goods began an extendable strike (operation snail, blocking of petroleum deposits, storage…) at least until Tuesday, when the NAO (compulsory annual negotiations) will begin between the employers and trade unions.

CGT, FO, CFTC and CFE – CGC trade unions that called to the strike movement claims  » an increase in the purchasing power of minimum EUR 100 per month » ,  » a 13th month »and calls for a 5% wage increase while employers offers 1 2% increase.  »

For the Chairman of FNTR, road transport companies do not have  » for sufficient manoeuvre  » and that claims of trade unions are  » out of step with economic business realities .« .

The Trade Union side, pointing the responsibility Pact, the decline in the price of fuel or even CICE (competitiveness employment tax Credit), the negotiations are difficult…

After several Union sources, mobilization is strong in Marseille, in island of France where Bison Futé saves 300 kms from caps, in the North, in Nantes, in the Rhone Alps, Normandy…

Take your precautions if you plan to travel with train or Air France to Toussaint vacation…

Ecotax: suspension of toll transit pl, reactions

Since the announcement of the suspension sine die of the ecotax on Thursday renamed «Ségotaxe» by transportation professionals or « transit heavy toll » by the Government, the political reactions abound. Segolene Royal said on RMC assume the decision of suspension of the ecotax « without State of mind » by justifying that for her this tax was « neither fair, nor realistic, nor effective.

Cécile Duflot, ex Minister of housing, on RTL « considers that it is a disastrous mistake. As soon as it’s time to deliver, it has more person «.»

For Jean-Paul Chanteguet, President of the commission of the fact-finding mission on the ecotax « this tax had the advantage to provide the State of the resources enabling it to fund maintenance roads but also the development of alternative infrastructure for sustainable transport, such as railways or waterways. (…) Without those resources, the State is no longer able to ensure its responsibility ‘.  »

For Manuel Valls, the current Prime Minister is « a wise decision, because the device had become incomprehensible «.»

Side Ecomouv’ which employs 200 people and 130 employees of customs in Metz, the question of the maintenance of jobs likely to be at the heart of the news these days…

Transport routier-Normandie: call to the January 18 strike

It is January 9 trade unions CGT, FO, CFTC, Normandy road transport has confirmed a call to strike in transport (road transport, transport and logistics, transport of persons…), from January 18, 2015, as early as 10 pm at the Mondeville road centre, if no agreement here there found on wages.

Trade unions CGT, FO, CFTC proposes to block deposits oil and fuels, central purchasing, the main roads…

Among the claims of the inter-trade union association that can be read in the release dated December 19, it was noted: ‘an increase of the purchasing power of 100 euros’ « implementation of a linear seniority », « the opening of negotiations for the purpose of career », « stronger social protection measures », «implementation of a 13th month» EUR 12 million, just for yvelines, funds that general Council, I have not counted Brussels these aid totalling EUR 12million benefit students domiciled in the Yvelines in training before tray, aged less than 21 years old at the time of the school year, not apprentices under contract of employment (except class preparatory learning), irrespective of resources, only for the journey home/institution school.

Sincerely, the 13th month, it is not the mother to drink, with that touch of Brussels and of the general Council, you are going to make us cry, GAG!

Ecotax: the toll could increase the invoice of EUR 200 million

Ecotax or toll transit pl chapter is far from finished since the announcement of his suspension sine die and the final bill could be salted.According LesEchos.fr, the toll could increase the invoice of the State 200 million euros as compensation for  » investment ».»In a joint statement, the SHT (Axxes, DKV, Eurotoll, Ressa Telepass and Total) say they ‘ take note of the decisions taken by the State « stating »it is its responsibility to compensate the SHT for damages, including in respect of investments and the costs incurred ».Many questions concerning the ecotax remain valid: that will become employees of Ecomouv’? What will become the portal? What will be the final bill that the State must pay to Ecomouv’ and finally, the toll will they succeed and are they compensated ?

One more, Eh, Yes, gentlemen, ladies, concerned or not concerned, yet one, la, this strike that employers could have shortened, because out of the bargaining while unions had made a step forward and be close the door of the nego on the nose, not cool, truckers, that and not least, was a car, or; almost all, we will all, bossés in general with our cars, what, I want to say, is that it made years that these guys make the wheat on your back, when you defended your fat butt, and has no one, when they just put salaries to level, inflation forecasting according to the insee2012 = 2. %

2013 = 09%, 2014 = 1.1% according to the ECB, and supposedly in 2015 = 1.3%,c’est as the unemployment curve,

requested these people, it was simply the right to defend their crusts, if you had been, more reflection, and common sense, when, it was time, all, this would not have happened there.

No. how

At least some are solidarity in defending their end fat, also!:

Tunivisions.NET |Tunisia, carrier strike : A…

The carrier strikes ~ Blog of Algeria

Port of Béjaïa: hauliers strike

Strike by carriers . Hit Westof tonight heavy extendable strike. Unions are demanding a reassessment of salaries. They are planning to block roads, deposits of oil tankers, purchasing plants and industrial sites from 10 pm… Tomorrow of 5 h, operations snails on the Nantes ring road.


I’m glad to know steven seagal, is like me, I am neither right

Neither left, I am french, it is neither Democrats nor republcain, he is American, it makes me much pleasure, it is like that, apparently

It is the only one to be that Americans, I saw a show, or, apparently

What he said was far from being stupid, and or, it was appreciated

The watchmen: the CRS denounce Valls methods04.07.2013

A document of the Alliance police Union denounces the absurd and disproportionate treatment that the CRS must inflict to the vigil. This tract on the one hand shows the ridiculousness of the situation, with police mobilized to take care of young pacifists immobile and on the other hand the achievement of democracy made by Manuel Valls instructions.

In France, there is more than one year two weights two measures at the level of justice. Youth districts that violate, steal, kill, and assault, are in fact victims of a racist France and he will in prison only after a decade of passage before the courts. Young honest and convinced that a child need a father and a mother (suffice to say fascists homophobic, or fundamentalist cathos) are arbitrarily arrest and ill-treatment by the police.

While every day the French are faced with the lack of number of police, Manuel Valls and Christiane Taubira send CRS by full trucks, to intimidate political opponents of their best of worlds.

The best example is is it not on the evening of the celebration of the title of the MTP, where the prefect of police of Paris was at the gare de Lyon to ‘protect’ Valls Taubira against hundreds of demonstrators opposed to marriage for all, assisted by hundreds of police officers, while the place de la Concorde was taken assault by hordes of ‘young victims’ which came about, to not quite numerous and overwhelmed police forces.

The police would just be able to do their work normally: handle real offenders and not do the political police of Valls and Taubira. A document that is going to comment:

The watchmen: the CRS denounce Valls methods…

Behold, gentlemen ladies, what Mrs Taubira, wants to vote, supposedly for groups terrorist, said any french (e) being suspected (e) to be a terrorist even by delation voluntarily to harm someone ‘ one, more exactly, that, him or that, which does not please

You take 3, 4 photos of the person to whom you give make you to the prehalable with one, or two Maghreb, preferably go to the office nearest you, and you complain, and the case is in the bag, if I’m wrong, I’m not very far, it is

New measures to combat terrorism that should propose the Government go to extend censorship on simple order of the Ministry of the Interior to the racist and anti-Semitic sites and by anti-Zionist sites annoying extension?

Christiane Taubira will block the ‘anti-Zionist’ sites without going through a judge, Gee, what freedom of expression.

However Minister of justice, Christiane Taubira suggested that blocking measures ordered without review by a judge be extended to sites racist and anti-Semitic, since a list laid down by the Ministry of the Interior. Gold for Manuel Valls, the anti-Zionist speeches that criticized Israel are inseparable from anti-Semitic speeches. Attention, danger.

New measures to combat terrorism that should propose the Government go to extend censorship on simple order of the Ministry of the Interior to the racist and anti-Semitic sites and by anti-Zionist sites annoying extension? The question is more than ever topical after the communiqué issued Friday by Justice Minister Christiane Taubira, who presented its proposals to the National School of Magistracy of ‘ fight against racism, anti-Semitism and discrimination«.»GAGs,

According to the release, Mrs Taubira suggested – what is the last straw for a keeper of the seals and that contradicts his positions of last summer, normal, I’m going in the direction of the wind! -to « entrust the administrative authority the possibility of blocking sites and hate racist or anti-Semitic messages », i.e. to extend to these offences police censorship measures for the justification of terrorism and child pornography. It would be entrusted to the Ministry of the Interior to establish lists of sites to be blocked without control of their illegality by a magistrate.

However one knows that Prime Minister Manuel Valls has a particularly wide what is anti-Semitism, since it includes not only hatred against Jews, which does not debate, but now more systematic and virulent speech against the Israel foreign or internal policy, and against figures who support it say ‘Zionist’. The border is certainly not always easy to establish between anti-Zionism and anti-Semitism, especially when the first as a faux-nez in the second, but the distinction is absolutely necessary in a democracy, and cannot be entrusted to the State.

Manuel Valls had expressed once the confusion of gender in an incredible speech at the Trocadero on March 19, 2014, at a rally organized by the representative Council of Jewish institutions of France (CRIF). « This anti-Semitism, and it is the novelty, feeds on hatred of Israel.  » It feeds of anti-Zionism », he said. ‘Because anti-Zionism is the door open for anti-Semitism. Because the cause of the State of Israel, (…) based on the anti-Zionism is anti-Semitism of today. That is why you have to be a very great determination» .

«We have body to fight this new anti-Semitism, which feeds on anti-Zionism, which flows on the canvas and on the Internet. « We need to think, we need to work, it is necessary if necessary legislate ‘, he added.

A year later, Manuel Valls has not got much on the front of the fight against the anti-Zionist sites, despite the verbal François Hollande’s commitment. « Your Government must speak in a voice stronger on these subjects », had respondent president of the CRIF Roger Cuckierman to the president of the Republic, who told him that indeed, « if we manage to fight against paedophile images, we must also succeed in combat messages deliberately racist and anti-Semitic ».

But the attacks against Charlie Hebdo and the Jewish grocery of Vincennes gave the subject of confusion of anti-Semitism and anti-Zionism on the front of the stage. Manuel Valls took advantage of the tragic events to remind its position. « Anti-Semitism, racism, anti-Christian acts are offences. «A year against Dini, I felt a little single ‘, lamented on Saturday, January 10, in the aftermath of the operation carried out with success against the brothers Kaye and MIT Coulibaly.

The temptation to censor the anti-Zionist speeches (which must be recalled and hammering they are absolutely legal in what they simply to challenge a policy for what it produces and not a people for what it is) is not new, nor exclusive to Manuel Valls. In July 2013, former Minister and current MP UMP Frédéric Lefebvre had wanted to  » eradicate the anti-Zionist propaganda ‘ on the Internet.

As long as justice remains guaranteeing the necessary distinction between anti-Zionism and anti-Semitism, these political speeches remain without great consequence. However if the proposal of Christiane Taubira entrusted the Ministry of the Interior to qualify himself sites it considers to be anti-Semitic, and to order immediate blocking, the risk of one derives infringing freedom of expression becomes extremely strong.

Boehner invited Netanyahu to the Congress on the Iran, after Obama threatens veto

House Speaker John Boehner announced on Wednesday invited the Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu to address Congress the month next on the threat of Iran, in a strong rebuke to president Obama.

The invitations are usually coordinated with the White House and the State Department, but it was not. Office of the President of the House, said that Netanyahu will be invited to speak before a joint Congress on 11 February session. The invitation comes as lawmakers weigh legislation, supported by Republicans and some Democrats, tee more sanctions against Iran in the event of failure of negotiations to reduce nuclear enrichment of the country program.

Obama promised Tuesday during his State of the Union to veto these texts. But Boehner indicated he wants Netanyahu to explain the stakes of the debate, that it is committed to moving forward with the legislation.

« Prime Minister Netanyahu is a great friend of our country, and this invitation is accompanied by our unwavering commitment to the security and the well-being of its people, » Boehner said in a statement. « In this time of challenge, I asked the Prime Minister to Congress address serious threats on radical Islam and the Iran pose for our security and our way of life. »

Criticism of Obama and his foreign policy say that the President has failed to maintain ties in Israel, a longtime ally to the United States and a key country in ensuring the stability of the Middle East. Among their concerns are that the Obama administration has not done enough to curb the prosecution alleged the Iran of a nuclear weapon.

In his State of the Union, Obama warned this potential legislation setting new sanctions would be « all except the » warranty that diplomacy fails.

But Boehner told members of the House GOP Conference Wednesday morning: « the President warned us not to go ahead with sanctions against Iran, a sponsor of the State of terror. » His exact message told us: « Hold your fire » He expects we stand idly by and do nothing while he cut a bad deal with the Iran. Two words: ‘ Hell no ‘. »

He said: « We will send a clear message to the White House – and the world – about our commitment to Israel and our allies. »

Apart from sanctions Bill, a Senate Committee was considering a Bill separate Wednesday which would give Congress a vote on a nuclear agreement.

The United States and five other world powers have reached a provisional agreement with the Iran. Countries are trying to reach a final agreement before June 15.

If Netanyahu accepted the invitation, it would be his third appearance before a joint session of Congress and his second during the Presidency of Boehner.

His previous addresses were in July 1996 and may 2011. Other Israeli Prime Ministers, to address Congress include Ehud Olmert, Shimon Peres and Yitzhak Rabin, according to the Office of Boehner.

Journalism and media in the United States today: sad balance

by Michael I. Niman

Several major newspapers have gone bankrupt in the United States without being replaced. This movement does not seem to have to shut down. Should we fear the end of professional journalism and to lament or, to the contrary, rejoice in the death of an economic model which, for decades, has given priority to profitability and profit on the investigation and the dispute.

Newspapers zombies disappear for good! Brain death of newspapers occurred a generation ago, now the body follow…

Obituaries of newspapers printed or televised Chronicles reported widespread press and journalism trading dieback: the major newspapers of the United States from falling into financial chaos, some closed their doors and others reduce their staff. The Wall Street Journal and the Los Angeles Times itself are tight the belt up, reducing up to their premises. The Detroit News/Free Press and Seattle Post-Intelligencer favor their websites from the paper edition.

Those who have closed altogether, include the Rocky Mountain News, with 150 years of seniority, to Denver; the Cincinnati Post, 128 years, in the Cincinnati; and theAlbuquerque Tribune, age 87. Their name is added to the list etched into the gravestone of industry information. For our part, as we see it for some time in our own newspapers, the news of the collapse of journalism does not date from yesterday.

Newspapers for quite some time know a brain death, and their bodies of zombies eventually escorting them. I know this may seem cruel and arouse the wrath of advertising cutting – coupons and crossword fans and they are legions, but it is necessary to investigate the phenomenon and to trace the history.

The greed and lust killed major newspapers (, this is what depends on the nose)

(Unless something is actually possible!)

The cause of the collapse of the newspaper industry is in its loss of diversity. The model of monopoly has dominated the industry towards the middle of the 20th century. In almost all cities of the United States, there’s a dominant daily, supported by a more powerful economy that made competition fierce to others. At the end of the century, there remained only one local newspaper in approximately 98% of U.S. cities.

Monopolies threatened democracy, and newspapers have become the guardians of regional news which the control was used to dominate local politics and arrogating unlimited power. Those policies that clashed with the local newspaper there have not survived, in terms of career. And the advertising costs soared at the point of threatening the existence of small firms in difficulty.

With the regional monopolies, the newspapers produced profits of more than 10% for the benefit of Wall Street investors and thus became one of the most profitable industries of the nation. But, at the same time, they killed « romanticism » of the young reporter to hunt for new ‘ serve hot’ and which was designed to combat corruption, to make « scoops » and to save democracy. Newspapers produce profits and therefore fall under the control of monopolies that make tools whose mission is to inform, educate or to campaign, but simply to make money.

The monopoly model brought to the press his season of fat cows, but it was short-lived, because by the dint of profit publishers have become arrogant, believing that their profits were a law rather than the fruit of the work. Without competitors, they dismissed staff, even in times of prosperity. Since the objective was to make more money, it was enough to replace with generic information the survey on local situation, as newspapers have lost any significance as a source of local information.

The best researchers in the world in equine locomotion are…

http://www.chevaux-Haute-Normandie.com/ …/les-meilleurs-chercheurs-monde-locomotion.


History of veterinary medicine – encyclopedia…

Like what, at the level of Horses (bourrins), the Arabs in the middle age, had drawn a good number of tips on the art of healing animals and also people. In the middle age

the veterinarian, absolutely steady in Europe

Western, had sunk into the crudest empiricism and blackest superstition, if the Arab school had kept the concepts that came it from Asia and the Greece

. Very versed in agriculture and horticulture, passionately loving horse, which was object of veneration, among them the Arabs pushed very far farming methods, equine reproduction

the study of their diseases and ways to address them;

Western, had sunk into the crudest empiricism and blackest superstition, if the Arab school had kept the concepts that came it from Asia and the Greece

. Very versed in agriculture and horticulture, passionately loving horse, which was object of veneration, among them the Arabs pushed very far farming methods, equine reproduction

the study of their diseases and ways to address them;
Bourgelat (, hence y v’nait already remind me) dota not just France

of much more capable veterinarians, he attracted from the beginning, students from the Denmark

, of the Switzerland

, of the Sweden

, Prussia

, of the Austria

, of Sardinia, etc.

.. From the Renaissance

the impulse due to the discovery of printing, the taste of anatomical research, the smarter of the sick observation, abandoning most accused of superstitious practices for the employment of more rational therapy, generate, especially in France

, in Italy

, in Germany

and England

serious works preparing little by little veterinary to enter its really scientific phase
Not wanting to fight the communitarianism, now we want we required the law of CRIF, of Israel, of the Jewish religious extremism! Now that our policies are made to gods, donors of lessons! After the terrorism, anti-Zionist sites soon blocked without justice?

Read the rest of Article: Taubira vs. freedom of expression

For more info

The Constitution of the United States (text in french), PDF 337 KB

In the United States, the very long history of police brutality
The scene was filmed by a witness. «I can’t breathe more», repeats Eric Garner, on the ground, while a policeman tightens it the throat. This will be the last words of this black man accused of selling contraband cigarettes. The police officer, he has not been charged; so decided a grand jury Wednesday, December 3. A decision that made hundreds of New Yorkers take to the streets to protest against what they believe to be an umpteenth unpunished police blunder.

In August, he was a black teenager, who had been shot by a policeman in Ferguson, Missouri. The death of Michael Brown provoked violent confrontations between demonstrators and the forces of order, as the decision of the grand jury not to pursue the author of fire officer. And in Cleveland, last week, it is a child of twelve years, Tamir Rice, who was killed by the police.

Three elements are useful for understanding the indignation and emotion aroused by these events. On the one hand, far from being isolated, this drama is added to a long list of police brutality. On the other hand, there has been 20 years a militarisation more increasingly important police pushed by a powerful defense industry. Finally, all this takes place in an America struggling to eradicate systemic racism and prejudice are stubborn.

You can see

Fortunately all the cops in the United States are not like that

The list is long. The collective memory obviously remembers the Rodney King case, this black man passed to tobacco in 1991 by police officers whose acquittal had triggered violent riots. It is not dead. But for many other blacks in the U.S., innocent, unarmed, the excessive use of force kills.

Jonathan Ferrell, black, 24 years, Charlotte, North Carolina

Injured in a car accident and bloodied, he sounds a Dame to ask for help. It takes fear and calls the police. Constable Randall Kerrick shoots him twelve times, ten balls reach it. He was not armed.

Ramarley Graham, black, 18, New York

Suspected to hold marijuana, continued to the apartment of his grandmother where the police enter without a warrant and slaughter him with a bullet in the chest before his 6-year-old brother. He was not armed.

Tarika Wilson, black, 26 years, Lima, Ohio

Looking for his companion, a special unit (SWAT) enters the home of Tarika Wilson where she is shot. His son for 15 months, she held in the arms, is injured. She was not armed.

Hundreds of killings by police each year, 497 nothing in 2009. According to estimates by the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), to oppose the fact that, very often, regardless of the degree of excess use of force, officials were acquitted. When they have been indicted.

Andy Lopez, 13 years, Hispanic, Santa Rosa, California

The teen was surprised in an alley with a gun in plastic. The officer Gelhaus fired eight bullets within six seconds, seven reached Andy Lopez. No charge was retained.

Sean Bell, black, 23 years, New York

In the morning of his wedding, Sean Bell and two friends out of a club. Their car, pursued by the police, is at a standstill where officers unload fifty balls. Four bullets killed Sean Bell. His friends survived 19 and three balls respectively. Three of the five police officers have been tried for homicide and put in danger. They were found not guilty.

Amadou Diallo, black, 23 years, New York

Confused with a wanted rapist, Amadou Diallo is gunned down outside his home by four plainclothes while he tended them his identity papers to identify themselves. It is affected by nineteen forty-one balls drawn. The four officers were acquitted.

Sometimes, under the pressure of public opinion or a particular political context, police officers are convicted. The heaviness of the sentences is variable.

Oscar Grant, 22 years, black, Oakland, California

Arrested along with several other people on the platform of the Fruitvale station, Oscar Grant was handcuffed and flat-bellied when the officer Mehserle shot him, in the back, explaining later that he has confused his weapon and his Taser. The scene was filmed by many witnesses. Mehserle was found guilty of manslaughter and sentenced to two years in prison.

Kathryn Johnston, 92 years old, black, Atlanta, Georgia

Probably on false information, a special unit of police invaded the home of Kathryn Johnston in search of drugs. Frightened, she takes a shot with an old pistol, wounding nobody. The police retaliated by unloading 39 balls, which six reach the old lady. Dying, she is handcuffed to his bed. The police later attempt to disguise the scene, hiding drugs in her home and asked an informant perjury. Three officers were sentenced to ten, six and five years in prison on different charges: manslaughter, perjury, perjury.

Abner Louima, 30 years, black, New York

After a fight between two women, in which he and several men are involved, the police arrived. It stops Abner Louima on the false accusation suddenly brought to the officer Volpe. In the car, the officers hit him with their fists and their radios. At the police station, violence continues to rape in which Abner Louima has the hands cuffed in the back. Two months is remained hospitalized. Justin Volpe was sentenced to 30 years in prison for violating the civil rights of Louima, for obstruction of justice and perjury. Charles Schwarz was sentenced to fifteen years in prison for helping Volpe during the rape.

The militarization of the police and the excessive use of force

$ 4.3 billion transferred by the Ministry of defence, the police, military and paramilitary equipment, between 1990 and 2012, according to the report by the ACLU on the militarization of the police

More than 500 police agencies have received an armoured vehicle through the year 2011-2012 asks question on the need for such equipment designed for military combat areas, but also on the commercial and financial interests of this policy. Thus arms manufacturer Lockheed Martin would receive annually $ 29 billion of the Pentagon, according to William Hartung, security expert, and employs 130,000 people. One may also refer the company ATK, leading supplier of small-caliber ammunition, whose turnover reached $ 2.9 billion and which is based in Missouri.

Since the 1980s, special units (SWAT) intervention, equivalent of the GIGN in France, grew to the point where Peter Kraska, Professor at Eastern Kentucky University believes that more than 80% of the towns of more than 25,000 inhabitants have one. It also believes that these units, created to handle situations at high risk such as hostage-taking, are now deployed more than 50,000 times per year (compared to 3,000 in 1980). Heavily armed and equipped with a military arsenal, these units are in fact widely used low-intensity operations, such as the execution of search warrants. The terror effect during their interventions key of disproportionately minorities, the first of which, black

However, as shown in the example of Ferguson, the over-supply increases violence and risks, both for the police and citizens, encouraging police officers to adopt behaviours military responsible for fighting a domestic enemy, instead of protect and to serve the people. Furthermore, helmeted and unrecognizable, police are dehumanized and expose themselves to more hostile reactions.

The racial question in the background

Prejudices and racial stereotypes to understand how an armed officer can feel threatened by a young innocent and unarmed, in this case Michael Brown, at the point of him shot six times, including two in the head. A number of stigmas associated with the figure of the offender structure the work of the police. Thus, in 2008, black drivers were three times more likely to be searched during a traffic (12.3%) than whites (3.9%) according to a report of the Department of justice.

72% cities where the black population is at least 5% of the total population are experiencing under-representation of blacks in the number of police compared to whites. In this context, facies checks daily in neighborhoods where minorities – live residential segregation remains widely dominant – enter into relations between the police and minorities, especially young black and Latino men.

Trayvon Martin, black, 17 years, Sanford, Florida

Shot in the street by a security guard who suspected him of wanting to commit a burglary because he wore a Sweater Hoodie. He was not armed. A package of candy was found in his pocket.

« Dehumanization » of children and black teenagers, according to a recent study published by the American Psychological Association, explains the racial disparities in sentencing as well as the disproportionate use of force against them. Thus, black children are routinely perceived as older (4.5 years on average). This has the consequence that black children were 18 times more likely to be tried as adults than white children. Once in prison, children tried as adults have twice the risk of violence on the part of a guard, five times more likely to be sexually assaulted and eight times more than risk suicide.

The policy of mass incarceration led for four decades, mainly as part of a war on drugs, thus mostly affected blacks who know incarceration rates higher and longer sentences. Thus, for two white Americans, eleven black Americans are incarcerated.

The consequences are also political and democratic. In 2010, 2.2 million American Blacks have lost their right to vote during their criminal conviction.

•› Atiba Goff P., Jackson M., Culotta v. M., Di Tomasso n. and Lewis Di Leone, ‘ The essence of innocence: Consequences of dehumanizing black children» , Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2014, vol. 106, pp. 526 – 545
•› Lee C., ‘But I thought he had a gun; Race and police use of deadly force », George Washington Law Faculty Publications, 2004, 51 p.
•› Eith c. and M., Durose «Contacts between Police and the Public, 2008» , U.S. Department of Justice, October 2011
•› American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), War Comes Home, The excessive militarization of American policing , 2014
•› Burch has., ‘ Arrested-related Deaths, 2003-2009 – Statistical Tables» U.S. Department of Justice,



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