AL QAÏDA

Apart from details, pres that it failed you unveiled as fact, that AL-Qaida was a group that was part of the NSA(je sais,ce que vous allez me dire, il raconte deles de conneries,il yoyote de la touf,bref il déconne), but al Qaeda is a terrorist group, moreover, they are both to help the American Government and the autres(sultans ou émir dele de QATAR) (, to work in conjunction with the cia, mossad, brief secret services), me too I thought it was, a good, big terrorist group, as in the times of the direct ACTION, ETA, IPARRETARRAK, EH BEN I fake AL QAEDA is neither more nor less than a Agency of intelligence, which is part of the NSA, as the cia, the fbi, the dea, the nbc

Al-Qaeda

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Al-Qaeda
القاعدة
Motto : flag commonly used by Al-Qaida. The text written in Arabic is the Shahadah, the profession of Muslim faith.

Ideology

Salafism jihadist Islamism, antioccidentalisme

Objectives

Establishment of a Caliphate in the Muslim world,
introduction of Sharia,
destruction or weakening of the Western world

Status

Assets

Foundation

Training date

1988-1992

Founded by

Abdallah Azzam (death) and Osama bin Laden (died)

Country of origin

Afghanistan

Actions

Operating mode

Suicide bombings, vehicles trapped, hijacking, etc.

Numbers of charged attacks

313 between 2004 and 20081

Victims (dead, injured)

3010 between 2004 and 20081

Area of operation

World

Period of activity

Since 1987

Organization

Principal conductors

• Osama bin Laden (d. 2011)
• Ayman al-Zawahiri

Members

between 500 and 1000 assets in 2001

Composed of

Al-Qaeda in Iraq (AQI)
(2004-2006)
Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM)
(since 2007)
Abdullah Azzam brigades
(since 2009)
Al-Qaida in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP)
(since 2009)
Al-Shabbaab
(since 2010)
Front al-Dhanub
(from 2012)
Al-Mourabitoune
(from 2013)
Al-Qaida in the Indian subcontinent
(from 2014)

Funding

Hostage, steering, front companies, charitable organizations2

Group related

Organizations and individuals considered by the United Nations as close to Al-Qaida or Taliban

Repression

Considered as terrorist by

Saudi Arabia, Yemen, United States, Canada, European Union, Australia, Russia, India, Turkey, Japan[citation needed]

War of Afghanistan, northwestern Pakistan armed conflict

Edit Consultez la documentation du modèle

Al-Qaeda (Arabic : القاعدة al – qā’ida, « Base ») is an Islamist movement founded by Sheikh Abdullah Yusuf Azzam and his pupil Osama bin Laden in 1987. Inspired by Sunni fundamentalist, it is rooted in theideology of Sayyid Qutb and the activist kharidjite Abdel Salam Faraj, and considers that Governments « Crusaders » (Westerners), with their head the United Statesinterfere in the Affairs of Islamic nations in the interest of Western societies. He has recourse to terrorism to hear his claims.

Al-Qaida has emerged from the Maktab al-khadamatorganization, incorporated during the first war of Afghanistan by Azzam to feed the Afghan resistance against the armed forces ofUSSR. Maktab al-khadamat was used to relay multiple donations from Islamic countries.

The actions claimed on behalf of Al-Qaida are considered as terrorist acts by most States and observers. The group is placed on the official list of terrorist organizations by the United States, Canada, theEuropean Union3,4 United Kingdom,Australia, Russia,India and Turkey5. Without dresser official list, France also considers Al-Qaida as terrorist group6. TheUnited Nations is published a list of entities and persons close to Al-Qaeda, which are sanctioned by the United Nations Security Council7. The European Union also puts in place of the « restrictive measures » against Al-Qaida and groups associated with8 .

The most resounding operation carried out by Al-Qaida is conducted on American soil on September 11, 2001.Then come the attacks of May 16, 2003 in Casablanca9, the attacks of 11 March 2004 in Madrid10 and those of the11 London, 7 July 2005.

AlthoughAl-Qaïda is the most commonly used name, the group is expressed in 2003 under the name of Qaïda Al-Jihad, « the base of jihad (Arabic قَاعِدَة ٱلْجِهَاد, qāʿida al-jihād )).

Summary
•1 history
◦1.1 . after September 11
•2 attacks attributed to Al-Qaeda
•3 . list of the main actors
◦3.1 regional heads or emirs
◦3.2 former heads
•4 theme
◦4.1 terrorism as a means of response
◦4.2 impact of Islamist terrorism
◦4.3 the money from Al-Qaida
◦4.4 scandals related to the testimony of some experts
•5 . see also
◦5.1 bibliography
◾5.1.1 studies
◾5.1.2 documents
◦5.2 related articles
◦5.3 external links
•6 notes and references

History

Osama bin Laden in 1997.

Originally, Al Qaeda is strongly linked to the First war of Afghanistan. Maktab al-khadamat (MAK), created by Abdullah Azzam in 1980, organizes and leads the Mujahideen before sending them into Afghanistan. The MAK is supported by other Islamic organizations, charitable organisations and by the CIA that deploys in this period an interventionist policy in order to curb and to cut down the power of the Soviet Union, referred to as the « Evil Empire » by the Reagan administration, including through the support groups of any kind that may destabilize regimes supposed close to Moscow. In 1986, Osama bin Laden, former student of Abdullah Azzam, which financed since 1982 the activity of the group, joined the front.

In August 1988, two meetings that includes Abdullah Azzam, Osama bin Laden, Ayman al-Zawahiri and Mohammed Atef are held to determine the future direction of the Jihad. Participants agreed to create a new organization to continue Jihad following the withdrawal of the Soviets of Afghanistan, but without specifying what will be its exact goals. The Organization was originally called al-Qaeda al-Askariya (« military base »)12. Osama bin Laden explained the origin of the term in a videotaped interview with journalist Al Jazeera’sTayseer Alouni in October 2001: « the name of al-Qaeda was established a long time ago and by accident. The late Abu Ebeida El-Banashiri had established training camps for our Mujahedin against the terrorism of the Russia. US planes used to call the training camp « the base », or « al-Qaeda ». ». The training camp in question was located near Jalalabad13 .

In November 1989, Abdullah Azzam was assassinated in a bombing that those responsible have not been identified. The killing could be linked to a divergence on the nature of the Jihad: Azzam opposed to conflicts between Muslims. As a result of the disappearance of Azzam, Al-Qaida is led mainly by members of the Egyptian Islamic Jihad such as al-Zawahiri who advocate the overthrow of the Islamic Arab leaders, in particular that of Hosni Mubarak in Egypt14 .

In 1989, Osama bin Laden takes control of the Maktab al-khadamat following the death of Abdullah Azzam.

After the capture of Kabul by the Taliban in 1996, Ben Laden organizes the formation of the Arab Mujahideen , thus developing the networks of the movement Al-Qaeda13 .

For the whole of the international community, Al-Qaida exists. It is an organization continued, inter alia, by the United Nations Security Council, NATO, the European Union, the African Union and the European Council.

Al-Qaeda training camps have trained thousands of militant Islamists around the world. Upon their return, ‘Afghans’ (Mujahideen in Afghanistan) applied later their training in various conflicts worldwide as in Algeria, Chechnya, the Philippines, Egypt, Indonesia, Tajikistan, Somalia, in Yemen, in the Balkans15 (Kosovo and Bosnia and Herzegovina). For its financing, Al-Qaida has benefited in another, the support of the « charity » International Islamic Relief Organization. Can be traced to February 1998 the date where Al-Qaida ceases to be a network to become an actual organization. Indeed, on 23 February 1998 is issued a ‘Call to Jihad for the liberation of Muslim holy places’ of the World Jihad Islamic Front against Jews and Crusaders16. This text is signed by Osama bin Laden, Ayman al-Zawahiri (Egyptian Islamic Jihad), Ahmed Taha (Gamaa al-Islamiya), Moulana Mir Hamza (Jamiat Ulama Pakistan), Abdel Salam Mohammed (Harkat-ul-Jihad-al-Islami/Bangladesh) and Moulana Fazil Al Jesse Khalil (Harkat-ul-Jihad-al-Islami/Bangladesh). The text proclaims: « all these crimes and abuses committed by Americans represent a declaration of open war against God, his Prophet and Muslims (…). » Accordingly, and in accordance with the commandments of Allah, we publish the following fatwa destined to all Muslims: « Kill the Americans and their civilian and military allies is an individual duty for every Muslim who can do it everywhere where it is possible to do so until the release of the al-Aqsa Mosque and the Al Haram mosque in their stranglehold. » ». It is at this time that Al-Qaida began of actual campaigns of attacks: as early as August, two American embassies are referred13 .

On 15 October 1999, as a result of these abuses and his collusion with theIslamic Emirate of Afghanistan of the Taliban, the Security Council puts in place the Committee established pursuant to resolution 1267 (1999) responsible for the promotion of the fight against Al-Qaida, the Taliban and individuals and entities associated with them at the global level. According to journalist Lawrence Wright, who won the Pulitzer Prize for The Looming Tower: Al-Qaeda and the Road to 9/11 (war hidden: Al-Qaida and the origins of terrorism), almost 80% of the members of Al-Qaida in Afghanistan were killed during the initial phase of the 2001 Afghanistan war and two-thirds of its executives was captured or killed.

After September 11

The attacks of September 11, 2001 are the most resounding operation of Al-Qaida. These attacks also trigger a virulent response from the United States, supported by other countries. They invadedAfghanistan late 2001 with the declared goal of destroying Al-Qaida. It loses its training camps, and its members are on the run. The CIA and secret services and the police of other countries are trying to identify and dismantle the small groups of Al-Qaida members in the world. This offensive in the ‘ war on terror ‘ has strongly affected Al-Qaeda17. According to Alain Chouet, former Director of security of the DGSEintelligence service, ‘ like many of my fellow professionals around the world, I believe, on the basis of serious information, information cross-checked, that Al Qaida is dead operationally in the Tora Bora rat holes in 2002»18 .

This situation led to a mutation of the Al-Qaida movement, it is increasingly difficult to consider as a structured organization19 the Al Qaeda’s September 11 could no longer exist, but it leaves place to independent local cell. These, unable to organize attacks in scope, preying on vulnerable targets such as the streets of Casablanca, or the homes of Riyad17 .

These cells who commit attacks in their own country are a kind of « franchising » of the ‘label’ Al-Qaida. They are no direct link with the historic leaders of Al-Qaida, but act on behalf of Al-Qaida, or their actions are claimed after the fact by bin Laden or al-Zawahiri, or again, local authorities, the press or the public attribute the action to Al-Qaida. « Targets are wide enough (everything falls under the Western presence, Judaism or American interests) so there is always something happening somewhere, giving the impression that Al-Qaida is everywhere19 .. »

In the years that followed, several movements have made allegiance to bin Laden and took the name of Al-Qaeda:
•Al-Qaida in Iraq,Abu Musab Al-Zarqawi group in 2004 from ;
•Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM), new name of the GSPC , which has claimed responsibility for the bombings in Algiers on April 11, 2007 ;
•Al-Qaida in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP), branch of Al-Qaida in Yemen and Saudi Arabia since 2009.

On 10 July 2005, Abu Abd Al-Aziz, a lieutenant of Al-Qaida was arrested in Baghdad, after a raid by the U.S. military. According to the American staff, Abu Abd Al-Aziz was  » a leader of a terrorist cell in Baghdad as well as a manager of operations for Al-Qaeda in Iraq « . On 14 July 2005, Khamis Farhan Khalaf Abed Al-Fahdawi, alias Abu Saba, was arrested in Ramadi in Iraq. He was part of the Al-Qaida in Iraq network. Was suspected of being responsible for the assassination of Ihab Al-Chérifet, responsible Egyptian business, as well as a diplomat from Bahrain.

In January 2006, its Iraqi Branch participated in the Foundation of the Consultative Council of the Mujahedeen in Iraq. On 7 June 2006, the leader ofAl-Qaida in Iraq Abu Musab Zarqawi was killed during a raid air American20 .

Among the « subsidiaries » of this network, Al-Qaida in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP) has a media branch called Al-Malahem Media Production for its propaganda21 .

On 24 March 2008,No. 2, Ayman al-Zawahiri, in a radio message – the third in a week – released by the as-Sahabnetwork, calls Muslims to further attacks against Jewish and American interests in the world and « monitor the targets, collect money bring equipment, carry out the preparations and then – invoking Allah – search for martyrdom and paradise »[citation needed]. However, there is much confusion about the nature of Al-Qaida. Sometimes depicted as a structured terrorist organization whose Osama bin Laden would be the head, sometimes as a nebula of jihadist movements or as a network of independent terrorist cells, no one is able to clearly define the structure of Al-Qaida.

According to The Economist, Al-Qaida would be on the defensive since the attacks of 7 July 2005 in London : its leaders are isolated among tribes of Pakistan, in order to avoid the attacks of the U.S. armed forces, and his supporters publicly denounce its ideology. Moreover, the Western intelligence services are convinced that Al-Qaida has tried unsuccessfully to blow up transatlantic airliners in 200622 .

Between 2008 and 2009, 11 of the 20 most popular characters of the network were offset. The interim leaders have almost all disappeared, most were killed in attacks by drones23 .

2 may 2011, Osama bin Laden, the founder of Al-Qaeda, was killed by a bullet in the head, in Abbottabad, not far from Islamabad in Pakistan, during a military operation on the ground which has been ordered by president Barack Obama and led by a score of SEAL (theUS Navycommandos). His body was recovered by U.S. special forces who brought him would have back in Afghanistan, before immersing in water his remains in the high seas off the coast of Pakistan24. The president of the United States said the death of the terrorist in a speech the same evening. The announcement has caused several spontaneous patriotic demonstrations throughout the U.S. territory.

Main article: death of Osama bin Laden.

The death of Ben Laden is a very hard blow to the organisation, which loses its most charismatic figure. At the present time, none of his lieutenants, not even the ideologue Ayman al-Zawahiri, regarded hitherto asNo. 2 Nebula, appear to qualify today for a such aura.

Attacks attributed to Al-Qaeda

Main article: list of attacks attributed to al-Qaeda.

Rubble after the attacks of September 11, 2001.

Satellite image of one of the training camps of Al-Qaida in Afghanistan under the U.S. 1998 strikes.

Al-Qaida is suspected of being responsible for the attacks on the embassies of the United States bomb in Nairobi (Kenya) and Dar es Salaam (Tanzania) in August 1998, killing more than 300 people and wounding more than 5 000 others. Al-Qaida had also planned attacks on American tourists and Israelis visiting Jordan during Millennium celebrations. However the Jordanian authorities thwarted planned attacks and have indicted 28 suspects. Al-Qaida has also attempted a bomb attack at Los Angeles airport during the Millennium holiday, but the carrier of the bomb was arrested at the Canadian border.

Al-Qaida says[citation needed] have shot down helicopters and killed soldiers in Somalia in 1993, and claims[citation needed] also attacks the bomb targeting American troops in Aden (Yemen) in December 1992. No doubt involved in the bombings of the World Trade Center in 1993 and against military personnel in Dhahran (Saudi Arabia), is also suspected of being responsible for the bomb attack against the American destroyer USS Cole in October 2000. The most destructive actions attributed to Al-Qaida is a series of attacks on the United States of 11 September 2001, an attack that the spokesman for the group, Souleymane Abu Ghaith had claimed on a video widely circulated in October 2001. Ben Laden also claimed mounting this operation, including through a video where he explains the reasons for this attack the Americans.

While in March 2014 he testifies in the trial which brought it to New York for ‘conspiracy to kill Americans, conspiracy to provide material support to terrorists and support to terrorists’ Souleymane Abu Ghaith, who is also the son-in-law of Osama ben Laden, explains that on the evening of 11 September 2001 this last him reportedly confirmed having organized the25 attacks,26 .

On 6 January 1995, the operation Bojinka plan was arrested.

Several attacks and attempted attacks since the September 11, 2001 have been attributed to Al-Qaida, including the attack missed the shoe bomb Richard Reid (who is declared supporter ofOsama bin Laden), the attack on the synagogue in Djerba in Tunisia, and attacks missed in Jordan, Indonesia, Morocco and Singapore. The network has more been involved in the abduction and murder of the journalist of the Wall Street Journal Daniel Pearl and was suspected of complicity in the bombing of a nightclub in Bali, Indonesia.

In September and October 2001, following the discovery of an attack against the Embassy of United States in France, suspects were arrested.

On 23 December 2001, Richard Reid tried to blow up flight 63 American Airlines. He was overpowered and arrested.

In 2002, members of Al-Qaida have attacked the Limburg in Yemen.

Al-Qaida would have a global network of influence , with cells in a number of countries and ties with networks Sunniextremists. Bin Laden and his lieutenants took refuge in Afghanistan under the Taliban regime in the 1990s. The Group had a large number of camps training there, and at the end of 1990s the Taliban themselves became effectively subordinated to Al-Qaida. Since the attack on the United States, the members of the group are suspected of fleeing to the tribal areas of Pakistan, in the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Balochistan.

Al-Qaida maintains very close relations with many other Islamic terrorist organizations as the extremist Indonesian group Jemaah Islamiyah.

The specialists of the Organization say that the non-hierarchical structure of the Al-Qaeda network is both its strength and its weakness. Indeed, the decentralized structure allows Al-Qaida to have a worldwide basis; However, actions involving a high degree of organization, such as the 11 Septemberattacks, take a lot of time and effort to implement. The efforts of the United States and other nations to disrupt the Organization of Al-Qaida were partial successes. Attacks by Al-Qaida since then were indeed simpler, involving fewer people.

The United Nations Security Council decided unanimously on 16 January 2002 to establish an embargo and freeze capital ofOsama bin Laden and the remaining Taliban .

7 January 2015, theattack in Paris in the premises of the newspaper Charlie Hebdo is claimed a week later by Al-Qaeda in Yemen in a video. The brothers Kaye (Charles Kaye, Said Kaye) are entered and killed 12 people. It was found two days later in a factory, they are slaughtered by the GIGN. At the same time, a third terrorist (Fasiledes Coulibaly) kills four people in a Hyper kosher grocery store and took hostage about 15 people; He was killed during the intervention of the RAID and the bis.

List of stakeholders
•Ayman al-Zawahiri,No. 1.
•Nasser al-Wouhayshi, no 227, Yemeni, former Secretary of Osama bin Laden: Al-Qaida in the Arabian peninsula, the Saudi and Yemeni branches merge.
•Saif al-Adel, (former Chief acting as a result of the death of Ben Laden), head of the military branch of Al-Qaida.
•Abu Mohamed al-Masri, responsible for propaganda and therefore the realization and dissemination of audio and video messages.
•Ahmed al-Hisawi, name of war Sheikh Saad, responsible for Finance since 1998.
•Mohammed Moustapha al-Yemeni, operational Manager of the28 Nebula.
•Adnan al Khairi al Masri, Chief of the command general28 .

Regional heads or emirs
•Abu Mohammed al-Joulani for the Syria
•Abdelmalek Droukdal to the Algeria
•Amin ul-Haq for the Indian subcontinent (indo-Pakistan region).
•Farman Shinwari for Pakistan29
•Fahd al-Iraqi, to the border region between the Afghanistan and Pakistan30 .
•Mohammad Omar, was the leader of the Taliban ofAfghanistan and the head of State of de facto of this country from 1996 to 2001. According to the Afghan authorities, he took refuge in Quetta in Balochistan.
•Salah al-Awadi for the Middle East.
•Saud al-Aouataybi to the Persian Gulf.
•Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi al-Husseini al-Qurashi for the Iraq (has been split in 2014 and creates theIslamic State31 ).
•Moushin al-Fadhli, responsible forIran32 .
•Hamza Ali Saleh al-Dhayani to the Yemen.
•Mohamed Nasser al-Wahchi, forAfrica.

Former chiefs
•Mohammed Atef,former No. 3, killed in Afghanistan in an American bombing end of 2001.
•Khalid Sheikh Mohammed,former No. 3, arrested in Pakistan in February 2003.
•Nabil Sahraoui, head for the Algeria, killed in June 2004 .
•Habib Akdash for the Grand Orient (Lebanon, Jordan, Syria, Turkey). Killed in 2004 in a U.S. bombing raid.
•Abdelkrim al-Medjati, head for the Maghreb and Europe, killed in Riyad in Saudi Arabia on 5 April 2005 .
•Abu Faraj al-Libbi, responsible for external operations, since April 2004. Order in Pakistan on 3 may 2005 .
•Abu Abd Al-Aziz, arrested in Baghdad in July 2005
•Abu Saba of his true name Khamis Farhan Khalaf Abed Al-Fahdawi, arrested in Ramadi in July 2005 .
•Abu Musab al-Zarqawi ‘s real name Fadel Nazzal al-Khalayleh, Chief Officer for the Iraq, killed in Baquba during an American bombardment on 7 June 2006 .
•Aereef Sumarso for Asia South-East, stopped in June 2007 by the Indonesian police.
•Mehdat Mursi, name of war Abu Khabab, responsible for internal security since 2002, he headed the 55e Arab brigade. Killed in Pakistan on 28 July 2008 .
•Abu Jihad al-Masri, propagandist, killed in Pakistan on 31 October 2008.
•Fahid Mohammed Ally Msalam for Pakistan, killed the 1St January 2009 by a U.S. drone, with his lieutenant Sheikh Ahmed Salim Swedan.
•Tohir Yo’ yo’ldosh, Chief for Central Asia. Killed in Waziristan by attack of American drone on August 27, 2009.
•Saleh Ali Saleh Nabhan, military commander in Somalia, killed on 14 September 2009 .
•Saleh al-Somali, killed in December 2009.
•Abdul Haq al-Turkistani, Member of the Executive Council and leader of the East Turkestan Islamic movement, killed on 14 February 2010 by a U.S. drone in Pakistan.
•Abu Hamza Al-Mouhajer for Iraq (Al-Qaeda in Iraq), killed during a military operation in the vicinity of Tikrit on 18 April 2010 .
•Hamid Daoud Muhammad Khalil al-Zaman, the head of the State Islamic Republic of Iraq, who was killed during a military operation in the vicinity of Tikrit on 18 April 2010 by the US Army.
•Moustapha Abu al-Yazid, aka «Said», head forAfghanistan, killed by a U.S. drone in North Waziristan on 21 may 2010 .
•Sheikh Mohammad Fateh al-Masri to Afghanistan33. Killed on 25 September 2010 at Datta Khel in the North-Wazirisan by a U.S. drone.
•Osama bin Laden,former No. 1. Killed on 2 may 2011, around 1:30 in the morning following an assault by special forces us in a building fortified ofAbbottabad Pakistan.
•Fazul Abdullah Mohammed to the Horn of Africa since end of 200934, killed June 8, 2011 by the Somali police.
•Atiyah Abd – al Rahman,ex – No. 2, killed in Pakistan by a U.S. drone 22 August 201135 .
•Abu Hafs al-SHAHRI, operational Chief of the Nebula for Pakistan36. Killed in Pakistan (North Waziristan) by an American drone on 11 September 2011 .
•Badr Mansour, high-head of Tehrik-e-Taliban Pakistan (TTP) and operational Chief of Al-Qaeda for Pakistan37, killed on 9 February 2012 by an American drone near the Pakistan-Afghanistan border.
•Fahd Mohammed Ahmed al-Quso, head of the external operations ofAl-Qaida in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP), killed by a U.S. drone in Yemen on 6 may 201238 .
•Abu Yahya al-Libi, former no 2 39, ideologue and spokesperson. Killed in Pakistan by a U.S. drone 4 June 201240 .
•Moez Garsallaoui, recruiter for Al-Qaeda in Europe, killed on 10 October 2012 by an American drone in Mir Ali in Pakistan41 .
•Khaled bin Abdel-Rahman al-Hussainane, successor of Abu Yahya al-Libi42 and potential candidate to the succession of Ayman al-Zawahiri at the head of the Nebula43, alleged killed by an American in North Waziristan drone on 6 December 2012 .
•Abdelhamid Abou Zeid, head ofAl-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb for the Sahelian zone, shot dead nearare ‘ hoc in Mali by french aerial bombardment on 22 or 23 February 201344 .
•Anas al-Liby, computer specialist on behalf of Al-Qaida and brain suspected of attacks against the U.S. in Africa embassies in 1998. Captured during a counter-terrorism action carried out jointly by commandos of the FBI and agents of the CIA in Tripoli , Libya, 5 October 201345 .
•Abu Khaled al-smiled, representative of Al-Qaeda in Syria, mediator between the Front al-Dhanub and theState Islamic Iraq and the Levant and former disciple ofOsama bin Laden. Killed in Aleppo, a suicide, 23 February 201446 .
•Ibrahim Bin Shakaran, Moroccan jihadist, former detainee at Guantánamo and recruiter on behalf ofAbu Musab al-Zarqawi in Iraq, killed in Syria in April 201447 .

Theme

Terrorism as a means of response

The armed conflict of Northwest Pakistan has opposed in Waziristan, which is part of the tribal areas, Al-Qaida members and Taliban against the regular army Pakistan, allied to the United States between 2004 and 2006. Completed in September 2006, the cessation of hostilities coincided with a resumption of violence in Afghanistan, across the border. This war to restart in 2009.

Opponents of the actions by the United States and Western countries in the Middle East and the world argue that the actions of the U.S. Government (and its Israeli ally) have provoked strong opposition among the Arab and Muslim peoples, and that terrorism is the ultimate stage of reactions resulting. According to them, these actions include:
•the support of the United States to the State ofIsrael (due to its occupation of the West Bank, the plateau Golan in Syria, and Shebaa farms still occupied in the Lebanon);
•the use of Saudi Arabia by Allied forces bases attackingIraq in 1991 to liberate Kuwait) (at the invitation of Saudi Arabia). Birthplace ofislam, the Arab peninsula is considered to be a holy land for Muslims that some believe that the presence of non-Muslims in this place is contrary to islam.
•the Iraqembargo decided by the United States following the Gulf war, which has complicated the drug supply and resulted in the death of more than 500 000 children48 Iraqis49,50
•the bombing ofIraq, pursuant to the resolutions of the United Nations, by the United States and the United Kingdom between 1991 and 2003 Iraq war and that some consider as illegal.
•support for the United States to some of the Middle East dictators , including Saddam Hussein during the war Iran-Iraq between 1980 and 1988 ;
•the bombing by the United States of a pharmaceutical factory in the Sudan in 1998 following the attacks in the U.S. in Africa embassies followed by an embargo on essential medical products resulting in the death of several thousand people[citation needed] ;

The impact of Islamist terrorism

According to the geostrategiste Gérard Chaliand, Islamist terrorism is only an epiphenomenon , which, although highly mobilizing the media and the public, has no consequences on the course ofhistory. According to him: either by human losses finally minimal compared to wars between States, mobilized workforce or the political consequences, its action has as consequences zero or near zero, after the manner of the anarchist terrorists of the end of the XIXe century and the beginning of the XXe century, now fallen into oblivion.

Antoine Sfeir has a close analysis. According to him Bin Laden has already failed and will fail in its main project which is to bring together most of the Muslim world of the Maghreb , the Mashreq in a recreated Caliphate comprising all believers.

The consequences appear to be rather indirect and security policies or belligerent attitudes justified by the need to fight against the « terrorist threat ». However, many Muslim countries are gradually political and social policies more in line with Islamic precepts, slowly but surely causing a deep Islamization of their populations[citation needed] .

Al-Qaida money

The report of the Department of the Treasury regarding terrorist assets evokes 8 $ million in assets of Al-Qaida blocked in 2006 and 11 million in 200751 .

According to the afghan Government, money that allows Al-Qaida to conduct his fights would come largely from wealthy and pious donors private living in the Arabian peninsula. It passes through the financial centre of Dubai : « How do you explain that there never Islamist attack in Dubai, land of islam where alcohol flows freely? It is very simple: some Arab Gulf countries bought their quietude to terrorist groups! »52

Scandals relating to certain expert evidence

The role of the CIA is the subject of a debate, especially on theextreme left but also worldwide intelligence53 : the American Agency would have resulted and thus spawned the terrorist organization to fight the Soviets. This hypothesis was defended and developed on 8 July 2005 by Robin Cook, former Foreign Minister and Labour MP who violently opposed the intervention in Iraq and the pro-American Tony Blair’s policy. He claimed in the Guardian « Ben Laden was the product of a huge calculation mistake on the part of Western information agencies. He was armed by the CIA during the 1980s and financed bySaudi Arabia to carry jihad against Russian occupation in Afghanistan. Al-Qaida, which literally means the « database », was originally the computer files of thousands of mujahidins recruited and trained by the CIA to defeat the Russians’54. Others go further away, as Antoine Sfeir who said late November 2008 that: « Al Qaeda serves the interests of the Americans. Washington plays a part of poker-liar with the Arabs, because Al-Qaida exists only in the imagination and is only intended to destroy the Arab world and prevent it from modernizing. Thus, the fragmentation of the Arab countries based on ethnic and confessional will allow Israel to make progress and lead the region »55 .

Maloy Krishna Dhar, former Deputy Director of Indian intelligence, says that Al-Qaida would have was organized by the Pakistani ISI at the request of the CIA and the MI656 .

Journalist Seymour Hersh for The New Yorker and who had burst the scandal of Abu Ghraib prison, in a conference in Cairo, issued [when?] the opinion that Dick Cheney, Elliott Abrams and Saudi prince Bandar bin Sultan bin Abdelaziz Al Saoud continue to fund members of the Al-Qaida network, in covert operations in Lebanon and Iran (two Shiite -majority countries(, Sunni Islam is not recognized as a religious minority in Iran), to destabilize the two countries pushing to sectarian strife. They would also push the Iran in a move that would give a reason in his attack by the57 United States.

See also

On other Wikimedia projects:
•Al-Qaïda, on Wikimedia Commons
•Al-Qaïda, on the Wiktionary
•Al-Qaïda, on Wikiquote
•Al-Qaïda, on Wikinews

Bibliography

Studies
•Nafeez Mosaddeq Ahmed, War against the truth, éditions half-moon, 2006, 512 pages, (ISBN 2-9525571-5-2)
•Alain Bauer, Xavier Raufer, the Al-Qaeda Enigma, Editions Jean-Claude Lattès, 2005 (ISBN 2-7096-2743-4)
•François Burgat, The Islamism in the time of Al-Qaida, La Découverte, 2005
•Jason Burke, Al-Qaeda: the true story of radical islam, La Découverte, 2005
•Guillaume Dasquié, Al Qaeda will conquer, Publisher Editions private, 2005, (ISBN 2350760359)
•Jürgen Elsässer, how the Jihad arrived in Europe, Éditions Xenia, 2006, (ISBN 978288920045[check: invalid ISBN])
•Roland Jacquard, Attame Tazaghart, Bin Laden, programmed the West’s destruction, Picollec, 2004, (ISBN 2-86477-204-3)
•Richard Labévière, the scenes of terror, Grasset, 2003
•Éric Laurent, the Face hidden from September 11, ed. Plon, 2004
•Alain Rodier, Al-Qaida: global terrorism connections, Ellipses, 2006, (ISBN 272982829 X)
•Isabelle Sommier, terrorism, Flammarion, coll. Dominos, 2000
•Lawrence Wright, the hidden war: Al-Qaida and the origins of Islamist terrorism, Robert Laffont, 2007, 440 p.
•That say the scholars of Islam on terrorism?, the Committee of the great scholars of Saudi Arabia, éditions Anas 2004 (ISBN 9-96043-913-8[check: invalid ISBN]).

Documents
•Farhad Khosrokhavar, when Al-Qaida speaks: testimonies behind bars, Grasset, Paris, 2006, (ISBN 2246677513)
•Gilles Kepel and Jean-Pierre Milelli, Al-Qaida in the text: writings of Osama bin Laden, Abdallah Azzam, Ayman al-Zawahiri and Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, Presses universitaires France, 2005, (ISBN 2130547710)
•Ayman al-Zawahiri, absolution, Milelli, 2008,(ISBN 9782916590059)
•The terrorist Handbook, Brussels, André Versaille Publisher, 2009, 192 p., (ISBN 9782874950575)

Related articles
•Islam – terrorism (Islamic terrorism)
•Emirate jihadist
•As-Sahab
•Group Salafist for preaching and combat, group active in the northeast ofAlgeria. Since 26 January 2007, having allegiance to Al-Qaida, he takes the name of « Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb ».
•Afghanistan war
•Armed conflict in North-West Pakistan

External links
•(en) Security Council Committee set up in accordance with resolution 1267 concerning Al-Qaida, the Taliban and individuals and entities associated
•(en) «  » 1995-1998: the statements of Osama bin Laden, « the leader of the (terrorist) Al-Qaida movement »»» (Archive • Wikiwix • Archive.is • Google • what to do?) accessed on 2013-03-24 on the site of the NATHALIA
•(en) « Since at least 1995, the Western secret services knew Osama bin Laden plans », Die Welt, 7 December 2001
•(en) [PDF] Sean N. Kaliç, Combating a Modern Hydra: Al Qaeda and the Global War on Terrorism Combat Studies Institute Press, Fort Leavenworth, 2005
•(en) [PDF] List of 600 foreigners who have joined the Iraqi branch of Al-Qaeda, by terrorism from the West Point Military Academy Learning Center, November 15, 2007
•(en) ‘Al-Qaida has infiltrated the British secret services’, Le Figaro, August 3, 2009
•(en) « The number two of Al-Qaeda threat the France », Le Figaro, August 5, 2009
•(en) « C.I.A. Sought Blackwater’s Help in Plan to Kill Jihadists ‘, The New York Times, August 19, 2009
•(en) «29/01/2010 Alain Chouet former head of the DGSE said that Al Qaeda is dead since 2002» on the Senate videos site.

Notes and references
1.↑ a and b http://zamanfrance.fr/FR/newsDetail_getNewsById.action?newsId=1397
2.↑ World – diplomatique.com
3.↑ Europa.EU
4.↑ (en) Proscribed groups
5.↑ «EGM.gov.tr» (Archive • Wikiwix • Archive.is • Google • what to do?) accessed on 2013-03-24
6.↑ Documentation francaise.fr
7.↑ UN.org
8.↑ Europa.EU
9.↑ (en) Guardian/tea observe « Horror in Casablanca as al-Qaeda toll hits 41 », accessed 16/04/12
10.↑ (es) elmundo.es
11.↑ TF1 news « Al-Qaeda is predicated the attacks in London », September 20, 2005, accessed 16/04/12
12.↑ Lawrence Wright, The Looming Tower: Al-Qaeda and the Road to 9/11, New York, Alfred A. Knopf (Random House), 2006 (ISBN 0-375-41486-X and 978-0-375-41486-2) p. 131-134 (war hidden: Al-Qaida and the origins of terrorism)
13.↑ a, b and c Antoine Sfeir (eds.), global Islamism dictionary, Plon, 2002, 518 p. (ISBN 978-2-259-19760-1, LCCN 2002508143 ))
14.↑ Marc Sageman (TRANS. Maurice Berrac), the true face of terrorists: psychology and sociology of the actors of Jihad [« Understanding Terror Networks »], Paris, Denoël, 2005 (ISBN 978-2-207-25683-1, OCLC 68208410) p. 79-81
15.↑ Nafeez Mosaddeq Ahmed, War against the truth, half moon editions, 2006, pp. 48-78
16.↑ The Washington Post, may 5, 2011
17.↑ has and b (en) David E. Kaplan , « « . Playing Offense: The Inside Story of How U.S. Terrorist Hunters Are Going after Al Qaeda « » , U.S. News & World Report , June 2, 2003, p. 19 – 29 (read online) (translation: [online ])])
18.↑ Alain Chouet. Intervention of Alain Chouet Colloquium ‘ the Middle East in the nuclear time ‘. Paris: Committee on Foreign Affairs of the Senate. The scene occurs in 3:08 – 3:22. (text)
19.↑ a and b Olivier Roy,  » Al Qaida, label, or organization? .« », Le Monde diplomatique, September 2004, pp. 24 – 25 (read online)
20.↑ « Zarqawi-Al Qaida: News International» (Archive • Wikiwix • Archive.is • Google • what to do?) accessed on 2013-03-24
21.↑ Arnaud Palisson,  » Al-Qaida of the Arabian peninsula and civil aviation: the frog who wanted », minority report, December 22, 2010 (consulted the December 27, 2010 ))
22.↑ (en) editorial staff, « « . The growing, and mysterious, irrelevance of al Qaeda « » , The Economist January 22, 2009 (read online)
23.↑ « Why do not (yet) to destroy al Qaeda ‘, Slate, December 27, 2009 (read online)
24.↑ Article of «Western France» from 05/2/2011
25.↑ New York: son-in-law of Ben Laden surprisingly talkative when his trial, Paris, 20 March 2014
26.↑ Ex-al-Qaida spokesman recalls 9/11 with bin Laden, The Washington Post, March 20, 2014
27.↑ (en) AQAP’s emir serves also as al Qaeda’s general manager The Long War Journal, August 6, 2013
28.↑ a and b The Express, may 18, 2011
29.↑ (en)[1]
30.↑ (en) Al Qaeda names Saif al-Adel as interim chief: report National Post, may 18, 2011
31.↑ « The Islamic State is not a branch of Al-Qaida… » 20 minutes.fr, accessed 09/01/2014
32.↑ (en) Report: New leader of al Qaeda network in Iran named The Long War Journal, February 16, 2012
33.↑ Al Qaeda Replaces Afghanistan Commander WeeklyStandard.com, July 8, 2010
34.↑ (en) Horn of Africa: Fazul Abdullah Mohammed remade talked about, Alain Rodier, November 21, 2009
35.↑ Zawahiri claimed the kidnapping of an American in Pakistan
36.↑ http://www.parismatch.com
37.↑ A Pakistani taliban leader killed by a U.S. drone Express, 9 February 2012
38.↑ «  » Responsible for the attack of l ‘ ‘ USS Cole « killed by a U.S. raid may 7, 2012, world
39.↑ (en) Bin Laden docs hint at large al Qaeda presence in Pakistan The Long War Journal, May 9, 2012
40.↑ http://www.lapresse.ca/international/asie-oceanie/201206/05/01-4531981-le-numero-deux-dal-qaida-tue-par-un-drone-au-pakistan.php?utm_categorieinterne=trafficdrivers & utm_contenuinterne = cyberpresse_B9_international_29810_accueil_POS1
41.↑ Death of Moez Garsallaoui, mentor alleged Mohamed Merah Point, 17 October 2012
42.↑ (en) Al Qaeda religious leader thought killed in US drone strike The Long War Journal, December 7, 2012
43.↑ (en) U.S. Slays Al Kuwaiti, One of the Top Al Qaeda Leaders Latin American Herald Tribune
44.↑ MALI. According to a member of AQIM, Abu Zeid died of Le Nouvel Observateur, March 4, 2013
45.↑ Libya: a leader of Al-Qaida captured by the United States in Tripoli RTL.be, 6 October 2013
46.↑ The al-Qaeda leader loses his representative in Syria, killed in Aleppo RFI, 24 February 2014
47.↑ (en) Former Guantanamo detainee killed while leading jihadist group in Syria The Lond War Journal, April 4, 2014
48.↑ http://archives.radio-canada.ca/guerres_conflits/conflits_moyen_orient/clips/3028/
49.↑ http://www.aljazeera.com/archive/2004/11/200849163336457223.html
50.↑ http://www.theguardian.com/world/2002/nov/24/theobserver
51.↑ (en) Bush has protected America after September 11?, Timothy Noah, Slate, September 14, 2009
52.↑ Algerie360.com
53.↑ Pierre-Henri Bunel, Near East, a world war, editions Carnot, 2004
54.↑ (en) The struggle against terrorism cannot be won by military means
55.↑ The last bombings in Bombay, the financial crisis and September 11, Interview with Antoine Sfeir
56.↑ (en) Maloy Krishna Dhar, Fulcrum of Evil: ISI-CIA-Al Qaeda Nexus, Manas Publications, New Delhi, 2006, (ISBN 8170492785 )).
57.↑ (en) Article on elwatan.com
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