Osama bin Laden

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Osama bin Laden

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Osama bin Laden
Osama bin Laden in 1997.
Nickname

Bin Laden

Birth

10 March 1957
Riyad

Death

2 may 2011 (aged 54)
Abbottabad

Origin

Saudi Arabia
Stateless from 1994

Allegiance

Saudi Arabia (1979-1991)
Maktab al-khadamat (1982/1986-1990/2000)
Al-Qaeda (1988-2011)

Grade

Emir

Conflicts

Afghanistan war
War against terrorism

Command

Al-Qaeda leader

Family

5 wives (including one whom he has divorced)
About 20 children 1
53 half-brothers and half-sisters

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Osama bin Laden (Arabic : أسامة بن محمد بن عوض بن لادن, Usāma ben Moḥammed ben ° Awaḍ bin Lāden) Note 1, born 10 March 1957 in Riyad (Saudi Arabia) and death 2 may 2011, killed by a commando American SEAL2,3,4 in Abbottabad (Pakistan)Note 2, is an Islamist stateless-born Saudi, spiritual leader of the jihadist Al-QaïdaNote 4networkNote 3 . It has claimed responsibility and the idea of the September 11, 2001 attacks in the United States6,7,8 .

The FBI, which placed him from June 1999 on its list of 10 most wanted criminals as a result of the American in the Kenya and Tanzania Embassy bombings, offered 25 million U.S. dollars for any information allowing for its capture, sum brought the Senate to 50 million in 20079,10. TheUnited Nations has established a listcirculated by Interpol in 2006, organizations and the people close to al-Qaida, Osama bin Laden and the Taliban.

If it could be regarded as a hero by some11other Muslims rejected and condemned it. Al-Qaeda itself causes reactions varied among the militarized Islamist movements or not12,13 .

Summary
•1 biography
◦1.1 youth
◦1.2 1979-1989 war against the Soviets
◦1.3 1989-1993, the break with Saudi Arabia
◦1.4 1993-February 1998, the troubled years
◦1.5 1998-2001: mass terrorism
◦1.6 2001-2011: tracking and communication
◦1.7 death
•2 . Al – Qa’idah
◦2.1 members of the family involved in activism
•3 motivations
◦3.1 origins claimed 11 – September
◾3.1.1 Palestine and Lebanon
◾3.1.2 first war of Iraq and embargo
◾3.1.3 September 11
◾3.1.4 Bin Laden
◾3.1.5 messages from bin Laden
•4 controversies
◦4.1 financial wealth
◦4.2 rumors about the disease or the death of bin Laden
◦4.3 pornographic videos
•5 . see also
◦5.1 bibliography
◦5.2 popular culture
◦5.3 related articles
◦5.4 external links
•6 notes and references
◦6.1 notes
◦6.2 references

Biography

Youth

Born into a rich family Saudi native of Yemen, his father founded the Bin Laden Construction groupcompany construction and holder of many contracts of exclusivity with the Saudi Government. The family fortune is estimated at 5 billion $ US14. According to the assertions of one of his half-brothers, Yeslam Ben Laden, Osama bin Laden would have received from his deceased father, from 1974 to 1994, between 12 and 15 million of dollars15. The proximity with the Royals of Saudi Arabia participates in the fortunes of the company that became one of the first companies in construction in the world, diversifies and becomes the Saudi Binladen Group16, with many ramifications. Among them, the Bin Laden Telecommunications, now since 1999 the Baud Telecom Company (BTC Networks)17 .

Osama bin Laden has 53 half-brothers and half-sisters, his father polygamous married with 22 different women. Itself has 20 children whose Omar married to a British, Jane Felix-Browne, become Salah Karkar bin Laden18 .

The young man made the commercial and technical studies at theKing Abdulaziz University in Jeddah from 1974 to 197819, then joined the family group in the middle of the 1970s.

He studied in this period the main texts of Wahhabism20. This form ofSunni islam, who was born in Saudi Arabia, is considered as particularly harsh and fundamentalist. In addition, it organizes and structure the Muslim law of Saudi society. The Saudi students are therefore influenced by Wahhabism; in this context, it seems natural that Ben Laden it was also21,22 .

1979-1989 war against the Soviets

In 1979, while members of his family are involved in the decision-making of the Grand Mosque of Mecca, he was approached by prince Turki Al Fayçal, then head of intelligence of Saudi Arabia (from 1977 to 2001), Ambassador ofSaudi Arabia in London, and son of former Saudi King Faisal bin Abdelaziz Al Saoud (from 1964 to 1975). At the time, the shah of Iran’s regime has been overthrown by a revolution which is headed by ayatollah Khomeini, while theUSSR invades the Afghanistan a few months later. Islamism began to become an important geopolitical force, replacing popular little Marxism and the pan-Arabism as main ideology in the Middle East. Many moudjahids come fight in Afghanistan against the Soviet Union, supported bySaudi Arabia which sees a possibility of spread of Wahhabism, Pakistan through its Inter-Services Intelligence which would be term at the head of an Islamic international future.

Officially, the CIA began to support the moudjahids in 1980, but according to Robert Gates, the U.S. secret service have begun to help 6 months more early23. According to Zbigniew Brzeziński, president Carter signed the first directive on their clandestine assistance on July 3, 1979, without having intended to lead to an intervention by the Soviets but knowing that this aid made it more likely24. December 24, 1979, the Soviet army invaded the Afghanistan.

The Saudi prince Turki asked Ben Laden to organise the departure of the volunteers for the Afghanistan and their installation at the Pakistani border. Arriving on the spot, the young man discovers activists motivated, but very little organized. Amateurism reigns. Ben Laden had coordinated the arrival of the activists in Peshawar via an organization called « Office services ». It would put in place a real organization and trained military and ideological fighters (camps, mosques, schools, etc.) as well as the supply of weapons. Little by little, he would have supported families. He would be held to widows and the religious education of children. According Noam Chomsky, the moudjahids would have actually been trained, armed and organised by the CIA, french intelligence services, the Egypt, Pakistan, etc. to deliver a holy war to the Soviet25 .

Therefore, the shy young man takes insurance, while its prestige grows. It is said that his meeting with an extremist Indian national to the pseudonym of Mr. Fantôme was partly determinative in the evolution of his personality and his determination. He himself had participated in some26fights. In 1989, his mentor and friend, Palestinian Abdullah Azzam Youcef, is murdered. Osama bin Laden is then found at the head of the organization. It is the basis ofAl-Qaïda, which is soon transformed into logistics of international jihadism , some veterans of Afghanistan starting then fight on other fronts ( Chechnya, Yugoslavia, etc.) During this decade, Ben Laden shall regularly report to the prince Turki, making numerous trips in Saudi Arabia.

Ben Laden Organization remains nevertheless, at the time, as one of the many factions in Afghanistan, country more obedient than ideological tribal logics. While in many regions of Afghanistan, a version moderate islam is respected, many Mujahedin are wary of the coming of foreigners conveying Salafism. The Commander Massoud, in particular, refuses any alliance with Ben Laden because he believed that it supports the Taliban, against whom he fights, and that he represents a danger to the community international27,28. Osama bin Laden is so close of Gulbuddin Hekmatyar, a local fundamentalist leader and « main beneficiary, according to Noam Chomsky, for 3.3 billion dollars in the United States (official) aid to the Afghan rebels (a roughly equivalent amount, said to be supplied bySaudi Arabia) »29. Hekmatyar is also, at the time, supported by Pakistan which would see at the head of the country after the departure of the Soviets.

In February 1989 the Soviets announced their withdrawal from Afghanistan. The jihadists want to continue the fight until the seizure of power in Kabul. However, the United States who have reached their goal, and Saudi Arabia, stop funding and massive logistical support in 1990.

1989-1993, the break with Saudi Arabia

Osama bin Laden returned to Saudi Arabia, it is regarded as a hero. He organized lectures in mosques, in schools, at the University on its « Jihad » against theSoviet army.

During the (1990-1991) Gulf war, Osama bin Laden offers the King Fahd to use his militia to defend the country against a possible invasion of Iraq30troops. The latter refuses and prefers to open its territory to theUnited States Army, lending the flank to the charge that he would have authorized the  » infidels  » to « defile the sacred ground » of Saudi Arabia. Ben Laden is thus increasingly critical towards the Royal family, and goes as far as accusing the princes of corruption. The Saudi Interior Ministry seized his passport during the winter of 1990-199131 .

Oussama Ben Laden left Saudi Arabia in May 199132 .

He chooses to ally with opponents of the wahibi Government installed in Iran and Syria33 .

Forbidden to stay in Saudi Arabia, he then lives in Khartoum, Sudan, from 1992 to 199619. He is greeted by Hassan al-Turabi, who heads the Sudanese national Islamic Front (NIF). He settled in the country, invests and made some deals (roads, agricultural exports, land acquisitions, banking activities in accordance with the principles of the Islamic Bank).

On several occasions in 1992-1993, members of his family will meet in Sudan to ask him to abandon his opposition to the Royal family and return to Saudi Arabia, without effect. In June 1993, his family stops his participation in family companies and its shares sold for a value of $ 9.9 million, amount which is placed on an account blocked, which could be used for its eventual return to the country or given to his heirs after his death. In February 1994, his family repudiated Osama in a34release. In early April 1994, Saudi Arabia deprived of her nationality5,35 .

It remains however in discrete relationships with some members of the Saudi regime (the Royal family is indeed little United). These secret relationships with some members of the Saudi royal family and or security forces, are illustrated by the attack of November 8, 2003, Riyad. Indeed, there is ‘a movement growing internal strife between the friends and the enemies of Ben Laden within the Royal House’36 .

1993 February 1998, the troubled years

Between 1992 and 1995, Ben Laden finance and armed the Bosnian Mujahideen, including via the Austrian ‘humanitarian’ organization Third World Relief Agency (TWRA). He was then met with Alija Izetbegović and received a Bosnian passport in 199337, that denies the Government of Bosnia and Herzegovina38 .

Ben Laden follows and funded the Mujahideen the most radical Islamists returned after the Afghanistan war in their country of origin (they are are nicknamed ‘Afghans’). It also funds training camps. As early as December 1992 a group funded by Ben Laden is responsible for an attack in Yemen against the U.S. soldiers on the road for operation Restore Hope in Somalia.

The same year, an attack affects the World Trade Centerand caused 6 deaths. A group linked to Osama bin Laden is suspected.

Osama bin Laden benefits from the policy of a part of the Clintonadministration, supported by the oil lobby. It has several objectives: support for stable regimes in Central Asia in order to allow the delivery of oil and gas, the fight against the Russian in the region influence and a policy resolutely committed againstIran Shiite39. This last goal through support forIslamist Sunni Pakistan40 and41 Saudi Arabiaincluding this. This support came to fruition during a statement by Bill Clinton, on 15 March 1995. He claims that « the traditional values of islam are in harmony with the ideals the best of the West »41. This is why Osama bin Laden is not only perceived as a threat[citation needed]. This strategy is however reversed in the last years of the mandate of Bill Clinton.

As a result of the campaign of attacks by the armed Islamic Group in France in 1995, Belgian police discovered documents of this group dedicated to Ben Laden42 .

May 26, 1995, Al-Qaeda is suspected of having participated in an assassination attempt against the Egyptian president Mohammed Hosni Mubarak43 .

In February 1998, Osama bin Laden appeals to attack American interests anywhere in the world. It therefore becomes an official enemy of the United States, receiving his expulsion from Sudan. He then fled to Afghanistan, passed under control of the Taliban since 1996.

1998-2001: mass terrorism

Satellite image of Zhawar Kili training camp referred by the U.S. strikes of 1998

The first international arrest warrant issued on his person date of mid-April 1998 ; it emanates fromInterpol at the request of the Government of the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, following the assassination in 1994 on Libyan soil of a couple of German citizens, Becker, secret agents of thefederal Office for protection of the constitution44 (Bundesamt für Verfassungsschutz/BfV). Since then,Spain45 and the United States have also requested red notices on him to46 Interpol.

The United States hold it responsible for the directed bomb attacks against the US embassies in Nairobi in Kenya (213 dead including eight Americans) and Dar es Salaam in Tanzania (11 dead, all Tanzanians) on 7 August 1998. Following these, the U.S. Government updates its head price for 5 million in October 1998. Each assault, Ben Laden is delighted by the attacks, but does not claim.

Tangible evidence of the strong presence of theISI in Afghanistan was given by the Pakistani official protest at bombing American retaliation by cruise missiles against the camps led by Ben Laden on 12 August 1998 which killed five officers from this service47 .

In 1999, twoChinese army colonels extensively cite it in their book The war out of range where it is referred as a serious danger to future48. It is placed in June of the same year on the list of ten most wanted FBI fugitives49 .

In August 2001, the Moroccan Islamic combatant group made allegiance to Osama bin Laden, in particular via present people in Afghanistan, and who will eventually live in Belgium50 .

In August 2001, prince Turki was sacked by the Saudi regime.

Backed by Pakistan, the United States are negotiating with the Taliban, who are procrastinating. The attacks of 11 September 2001 brutally quit this negotiation.

2001-2011: tracking and communication

Osama bin Laden is seen as the primary responsibility for the September 11, 2001 attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon. He himself acknowledged involvement in the attacks on the World Trade Center of 11 September 2001, by confessing to be the instigator ( » I say to you, Allah knows that he not came us to mind to hit the towers. (« But after that it became unbearable to see the oppression and tyranny of the American-Israeli coalition against our people of Palestine and the Lebanon, I then got this idea « ) and expressed appreciation for their holding.

As a result of September 11, 2001 attacks, and after the Government of theIslamic Emirate of Afghanistan refused to deliver Ben Laden, the president of the United States George w. Bush Gets the establishment of an international Afghanistan intervention with the declared goal of destroying Al-Qaïda.

Diplomatic to challenge him are measures since the end of the 1990s, including the establishment of a Committee on sanctions against Al-Qaida and the Taliban (established pursuant to resolution 1267 in 1999, called also 1267 Committee)51, the United Nations Security Council resolutions 1377 of 12 November 200152 and 1390 of January 16, 200253 related to the position of theUnion European54 .

December 13, 2001, the U.S. Government has $ 25 million offer for information leading directly to his capture, and an additional two million dollars is offered jointly by the Air Line Pilots Association and the Air Transport Association55. From this moment, the United States officially want Ben Laden « dead or alive ».

Despite research that continued until January 2002, Ben Laden has not been found during the battle of Tora Bora. Afghan war leaders, like Zaman Ghamsharik, are suspected of leaving it running away56. After his escape from Tora Bora, Ben Laden manages to escape his pursuers for a decade.

Osama bin Laden watches television in his complex ofAbbottabad in Pakistan.

According to interviews with his wife Amal by the Pakistani authorities after his death, after fleeing Tora Bora, he would have gone to Kohat near Peshawar, where he met Khalid Sheikh Mohammed at least once. Ben Laden is would be regularly moved in Waziristan in 2003, then in Swat Valley for a few months. In 2004 it will be installed in a house in Haripur before finally settling in a villa to the Abottabad in 2005. He would have received a transplant of kidney in 2002, unless we know where this operation would have occurred (in Karachi or outside Pakistan). In 2011, his first wife, Khairiah Saber, would have joined it to the Abottabad after being released by the Iranian authorities that it had kept under house arrest for a decade. Ben Laden maintained contact with leaders of the Lashkar-e-Toiba and Taliban afghans57 .

According to Senator American Dianne Feinstein, Chair of the Committee on information to the Senate, Ben Laden had left these mountains since 2005 or 2006 to reach a fortified complex in Abbottabad58 (town located 50 km North of the capital Islamabad) for several reasons: suffering from a serious intestinal amoebic infection, it could be more easily treated in the city; to the effectiveness of U.S. drones, Ayman al-Zawahiri,No. 2 ofAl-Qaïda, believed that its security was more assured in these areas; He could meet easily with new Al-Qaida officials, including Ilyas Kashmiri (en), his protégé and which he wanted to spearhead its59 movement.

The Qatari Al Jazeera published on 12 November 2002 a sound message recognized by the authorities of the United States as from Osama bin Laden. It warns and threatens several Western countries of new attacks if they continue to support the gang of butchers of the White House . ».

On 31 may 2003, a signed letter of Osama bin Laden is found on the body of a militant killed in a clash with Saudi police and linked to the attacks of Riyad. Letter, old of approximately six months, congratulated the Group of activist60 .

On 30 October 2004, a video broadcast by Al-Jazeera Arabic channel four days before the presidential elections in the United States would tend to show that Osama bin Laden is still alive at the time of the registration despite persistent rumours of death in the mountains in the Afghanistan-Pakistan border. The latter refers back to back two candidates and Announces future attacks. He says that contrary to the argument of American leaders, its purpose is not to fight against freedom, in which case he would be attacked in Northern States. It considers that the attacks on the World Trade Center are a retaliatory measure against the ‘killings’ organized by the US military.

On 27 December 2004, the Al Jazeera television channel aired a recording audio, attributed to Osama bin Laden, designating the Jordanian Abu Musab Al-Zarqawi as his Deputy in Iraq and calling for a boycott of the elections on 30 January 2005 .

On 19 January 2006, after a year of silence, Al-Jazeera broadcast a new audio recording where Osama bin Laden announces the preparation of new terrorist operations and offers a « truce » in Exchange for a withdrawal of American troops in Iraq and Afghanistan: « we have no objection to offering you a truce (hudna) of long duration in fair conditions that we will keep ».because we are a nation that God forbid treachery and falsehood « . A truce immediately denied by the White House. The absence of images fuelling further speculation that Osama bin Laden would be sick or injured and perhaps even death.

In another audio recording broadcast on 23 April, Osama bin Laden discusses the situation in Sudan for the first time by calling his supporters « to prepare with all what necessary to a war of long duration against robbers in Western Sudan. » the Western Sudan for Darfur61 .

Two new audio recordings attributed to Osama bin Laden are broadcast on 23 May and on 30 June : the first exonerate Zacarias Moussaoui after his conviction to life imprisonment in the context of the September 11, 2001 attacks and the second pays tribute to Abu Musab Al-Zarqawi , killed in a U.S. raid in Baqouba on 7 June 2006 .

Bin Laden in 2010.

On 7 September 2007, the Al Jazeera broadcasts, a few days before the sixth anniversary of the September 11, 2001 attacks, excerpts from a video of Osama bin Laden, the first since nearly three years62. The head of Al-Qaida, whose voice has been officially identified by US intelligence services, is aimed at the United States and discusses the current situation in Iraq63. Ben Laden mentions the names of french president Nicolas Sarkozy, elected in May 2007, as well as British Prime Minister Gordon Brown , who succeeded Tony Blair in June of the same year.

On 30 November 2009, the Committee of business foreign of Senate of United States makes public a report revealing that Oussama Ben Laden have been captured or killed while he was staying in the mountainous region of Tora Bora around 16 December 200164 if the army American had massively mobilised several thousands of men in the region instead of opt for one approach commando supported by the militiamen afghans and keystrokes air65 .

On 6 December 2009, Secretary U.S. Defense Robert Gates said that US military authorities did not have, for years, the slightest indication on the location of Ben Laden66 .

On 24 January 2010, in a new audio recording, Ben Laden claims responsibility for the attempted bombing of the 25 December 2009 on an Northwest Airlines connecting Amsterdam to Detroitflight, and threatens new attacks United States .

Death

Main article: death of Osama bin Laden.

Celebration in Times Square following the announcement of the death of Osama bin Laden.

The morning of 2 may 2011, around 1:30 hour local, Osama bin Laden was killed in the city ofAbbottabad in Pakistan67 in a costly residence fortified (compound), built in 200568 and monitored by the intelligence services US since August 201069, about 50 kilometres fromIslamabad and less than 140 kilometres from the tribal areasduring a military operation on the ground ordered by US president Barack Obama and led by a score of SEAL (theUS Navycommandos). At least four other people, members of his family (one of his sons and collaborators, – two messengers), were reportedly killed in the clash. His body was recovered by U.S. special forces who would have brought him back to Afghanistan, prior toimmerse his remains in high seas70. The president of the United States said the death of the terrorist in a speech the same evening, at 5:36 UT, declaring that « justice is done ». He also hailed the cooperation of the Pakistani authorities in this operation69 .

The announcement has caused several spontaneous patriotic demonstrations across the country, including the heart of New York, near Ground Zero and Times Square, and downtown Washington, D.C., on Lafayette Square, near the White House. Former U.S. president George w. Bush, came out of the silence he observed since his departure from the Presidency to pay tribute to a « great victory for the United States’71 .

Three days before the elimination of Ben Laden, president Obama announced a reshuffle of his intelligence and defence team, including causing the departure of Robert Gates, Secretary of defence of United States appointed by George w. Bush, and his replacement by Leon Panetta, Director of the CIA since January 5, 2009, date of the accession of Barack Obama to the Presidency of the United States72,73 .

Leon Panetta admitted that torture by water (waterboarding) authorized by George W. Bush and applied for example to Khalid Sheikh Mohammed183 times during the month of March 2003, allowed to retrieve information which led to the cache of Ben Laden74, in particular the name ofAbu Ahmed al-Kuwaiti, identified as the Messenger of Ben Laden75 .

The High Commissioner of the United Nations for human rights, Navi Pillay says that anti-terrorism operations should abide by international law but considers that Ben Laden had assumed full responsibility for his actions, including massacres of civilians that could be described as crime against humanity76 .

May 5, 2011, president Obama issued a solemn tribute to the victims of the September 11 attacksat Ground Zero . He had invited his predecessor George w. Bush to join him, but the latter declined the invitation77 .

Al-Qaïda confirmed Friday, may 6, 2011, the death of Osama bin Laden in a communiqué published on sites Islamists78. Tehrik-e-Taliban Pakistan promised on may 2 to avenge the death of the leader of Al-Qaida79. The movement claimed theattack of May 13, 2011 at Shabqadar Northwest of Pakistan that kills 98 people, especially young recruits of a paramilitary group of police, injured more than 140 people. In addition, it clarifies that the attack is a revenge for the death of ben Laden80,81 .

Following his death, the federal justice of the United States formally ended, on June 17, 2011, prosecution committed against him82 .

Al-Qaida organization

The choice of targets particularly spectacular in its terrorist operations[which?], shows both a sense of the tactical preparation of the use of the media.

Regarding the conceptualization of terrorism and the  » ideological  » ofAl-Qaedapane, the « brain » is Ayman al-Zawahiri83. Ben Laden would be contented to finance the September 11, 2001 attacks, and the operation would have been proposed and orchestrated by Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, according to confessions by the latter and the conclusions of final report of the national commission on the terrorist attacks against the United States84. A video broadcast by Al Jazeera on 7 September 2006 would however show Ben Laden and his lieutenants, including Mohammed Atef (died in Afghanistan in November 2001), preparing the September 11, 2001 attacks.

Cassettes recorded and distributed, often by the Al Jazeera exclusively pursue several goals:
•maintain the psychosis of terrorism in Western democracies, sometimes in meddling in the political game as at the 2004 U.S. elections or Spanish election of the same year.
•recall its existence to public opinion in Muslim countries in addressing themes that affect them, to facilitate the recruitment of Al-Qaeda.
•refresh the objectives of Jihad ofAl Qaeda.

Members of the family involved in activism

Saad bin Laden, third son of Ben Laden, born in 1979, would have leftIran for the tribal areas of Pakistan join his father and reportedly killed during of an attack by a drone in the summer 200985. Several other members of his family remain in 2009 in Iran. A list of eighty-five suspects linked to al-Qaeda was published by Interpol on February 10, 2009, at the request of Saudi Arabia that consider a major threat to the country. There are among them a brother-in-law of Ben Laden and eleven former detainees in the prison of Guantanamo86,87 .

In March 2014, while he testifies in the trial which it is instituted in New York under charges of conspiracy to kill Americans, conspiracy to provide support to terrorists and material support to terrorists, Souleymane Abu Ghaith, son-in-law of bin Laden and former spokesman of al-Qaida, says that on the evening of September 11, 2001 his father-in-law entrusted him with organizing attacks88,89 .

Motivations

Ben Laden condemns the evolution of the Islamic civilization since the demise of the Caliphate (the last Caliph was the ottoman sultan until 1924)90. This objective through a reversal of the Arab Governments ‘ lay ‘ and ‘ ungodly ‘ protected by the United States as the  » Western Crusaders . In his91 by journalist Robert Fisk in 1996interview, he stated:

« The people now includes the speeches of the ulema in mosques, according to which our country became a colony of theAmerican empire. It acts with determination to oust the Americans ofSaudi Arabia. […] The solution to this crisis is the withdrawal of U.S. troops. Their military presence is an insult to the Saudi people. »

For Osama bin Laden, the military bases in Saudi Arabia and the Middle East regarded as territories sacred (with places Holy Medina and Mecca) represent a sacrilegious because these American bases were to be temporary, the time to win the war against Saddam Hussein.

Origins claimed September 11

Main article: Motivations of the attacks of September 11, 2001.

Palestine and Lebanon

Main article: War of Lebanon.

Osama bin Laden uses in its propaganda the reference to Israel ‘s South Lebanon occupation duringoperation peace for Galilee in 1982. He says have been affected by the Israeli bombing of the Palestinian refugees during the Lebanon war.

« I tell you, Allah knows that he not came us to mind to hit the towers. But after that it became unbearable to see the oppression and tyranny of the American-Israeli coalition against our people in Palestine and Lebanon, I then got this idea. The events that affected me directly began in 1982, when America allowed the Israelis to invade the Lebanon and that the sixth American air division has helped them. This bombing began has made many deaths and injuries, and as well as people terrorized refugees. I cannot forget these scenes, blood, shredded members, women and children lying everywhere. Destroyed houses and their occupants, piles of rubble on their bodies, bombs that rained on our homes without mercy. »

« This situation was like a crocodile meeting a helpless child. Can the crocodile understand a conversation that would not include a weapon? And the world has seen, and heard, but he did not respond. »

Osama bin Laden operates a sense of resentment among a large part of the Muslims of Palestine and the Middle East against what is perceived as an Israeli aggression backed by the United States. He himself describes the Israeli operations of ‘tyranny’ and ‘oppression’92 .

First war of Iraq and embargo

Detailed articles: (1990-1991) Gulf war and Iraq war.

Ben Laden introduced theeconomic embargo againstIraq and the regular bombing of that country between the two wars, as evidence that the United States, through their president George h. w. Bush, were ‘murderers of children’93 .

The Iraq embargo would have done 500 000 dead Iraqi children, according to theUnited Nations (UN)94 .

September 11

This « assault » is initially for Osama bin Laden a religious issue: military presence in Saudi Arabia (desecration of a holy land) and support for Israel which occupies Jerusalem (holy place). The rhetoric on the suffering of the Palestinians or Iraqis is used to raise awareness of Muslims in his fight but is not at the centre of the concerns ofAl-Qaeda.

« With these images in mind, the events of 11 September came as a response to these terrible errors. How could a man be blamed for defending his home? Is defend and punish the aggressor terrorism? »

These terrorist actions, which were made by the victims, are condemned by most Muslims.

In addition, the presence indirect American, embodied by the support for the State of Israel, justifies for Osama bin Laden, attacks everywhere in the world of American interests. Like « think globally, act locally » Raymond Williams, Osama bin Laden applies the reverse strategy thinking locally and acting globally95 .

Introduction of bin Laden speech, November 2004, video aired on Al Jazeera :

« Before, I tell you that security is an essential pillar of human life, and that free men do not compromise their safety, unlike the falsification of George Bush, who said that we hate freedom. If that were the case, which he explains why we do not, for example, knock the Sweden? »

« No, we fight because we are free men, who cannot sleep under oppression. We want to restore the freedom of our nation. »

Bin Laden

Osama bin Laden believes that George Bush hides the reasons for the attacks of September 11, 2001, and this, in order to deceive the American people.

« Even if we are in the fourth year after the events of September 11, Bush continues the misinformation, and hide the real causes [September 11 events] […] It was the message that I tried to make you understand facts and actions, repeatedly, and, long before September 11. And you can read all this, if you want, in my interview with Scott, in Time Magazine, in 1996, or with Peter Arnett, CNN, in 1997, or at my meeting with John Weiner, in 1998. […] And you can read my interview with Abdul Bari Atwan, and yet my interviews with Robert Fisk. »

He considers the new war inIraq from 2003, as an attempt of George w. Bush to « remove an old agent of Saddam Hussein, and replace it with a new puppet, allowing the looting of oil from Iraq and other outrages. »

Osama bin Laden has no link proven with Saddam Hussein although it would have offered himasylum in 199996. On the contrary, it would appear that Ben Laden considered Saddam Hussein a  » Socialist  » infidel97 .

Messages from bin Laden

Since the September 11, 2001 attacks, Osama bin Laden is expressed mainly through videos and audio recordings. Some of the messages however could not be authenticated98 .

Four of these video recordings have been broadcast:
•the first video is dated 9 November 2001 and is broadcast on 13 December 2001 : Ben Laden ensures that the destruction of September 11 exceeded his expectations.
•the second is broadcast on September 10, 2003: the Al-Qaeda leader appears walking with Ayman Al-Zawahiri.
•the third is broadcast on October 29, 2004: a few days before the U.S. presidential, Al Jazeera broadcast a tape in which Ben Laden threatens new attacks United States.
•the latest is broadcast on September 7, 2007 after having discovered by the SITE Institute prior to its release by Al-Qaeda: announces the American defeat in Iraq and criticism of all political forces: « to explain the failure of Democrats to end the war, I say: these are the same reasons that prevented president Kennedy to stop the Viet Nam war. Those who truly possess the power are those who have the most important capital. And since the democratic system allows large companies to support candidates for the Presidency, it may be surprising – and it is not – surprising failure of the Democrats to stop the war (…) You sacrifice your large business99soldiers. « To put an end to the war, it encourages Americans to Islamise is: »the only way to achieve peace is to convert to islam100 . Serious doubts expressed as to the origin of this record, many observers have noticed that the image of Ben Laden is frozen during most of the video. There is also a Ben Laden to different physical appearance.

Then 3 audio recordings:
•Wednesday 19 March 2008, the press is the echo of a sound message of threats accompanied by an animation video broadcast on an As-Sahab internet site nearAl-Qaïda and on which you can see a spear piercing the map ofEurope where the blood spreads. According to the press, Ben Laden would consider the case of the cartoons of Muhammad by the newspaper Jyllands-Posten as underminingislam and he would predict veiled words of a large-scale attacks by adopting words enigmatic such as ‘don’t listen to not our words but watch our actions’ or « response will be what you see and not what you will hear »101 .
•24 January 2010, it broadcast an audio message on radio Al Jazeera threatening United States of new attacks if they continue to support the State ofIsrael and do not provide security in Palestine.
•On 27 October 2010, it records a message in France in which he challenged the law prohibiting the wearing of the full veil and also asked French troops to withdraw fromAfghanistan. He explained that these two reasons justify the removal of 5 french in Niger. He also indicated that attacks were prepared.
•7 may 2011, after the death of bin Laden in its Pakistani refuge, U.S. authorities broadcast five cassettes102 of bin Laden (whose one where, very aged, he watches himself on-screen)103. To avoid exploitation of the messages contained in the tapes, they are broadcast without sound.

Controversies

Financial wealth

The figure of $ 300 million as an estimate of the financial wealth of Ben Laden was often repeated. It had been cited in 1996 by a charge of research from the State Department, which first divided the global assets of Group bin Laden, that he valued at $ 5 billion, by the number of the sons of the family, that he estimated twenty. It thus resulted in 250 million $, rounded then to 300 million104. This figure was denied by the publication of the final report of the national commission on the terrorist attacks against the United Statesin April 2004. Several researchers in the Middle East (Ibrahim Warde, adjunct professor atTufts University, or Alain Gresh) consider this estimate visionary10419 .

According to Seymour Hersh, journalist for The New Yorker and who had already made burst the scandal of Abu Ghraib prison, in a conference at Cairo issued the opinion that Dick Cheney, Elliott Abrams and Saudi prince Bandar bin Saud continued to fund members of the Al-Qaida network, in covert operations in Lebanon and Iran (two Shiite -majority countries(, Sunni Islam is not recognized as a religious minority in Iran), to destabilize the two countries pushing to sectarian strife. They would also push the Iran in a move that would give a reason in his attack by the United States105 .

Rumors about the disease or the death of Ben Laden

Ben Laden would have suffered fromchronic renal failure requiring treatment and would have been under dialysis. According to other sources, he was not on dialysis and suffered no kidney106 problems.

Observers have repeatedly considered possible the death of the head of Al-Qaida. In January 2002, the president of Pakistan, Pervez Musharraf believed that the Islamist may have died of kidney failure. In July 2002, the head of the FBI Dale Watson (en) thought he was ‘probably more of this world’. In December 2002, is the head of Pakistan’s diplomacy, Khurshid Kasuri, who says that Ben Laden had died as a result of US military operations.

On 23 September 2006, the french newspaper L’Est républicain revealed the existence of a classified note confidential defence of the DGSE , which indicated that the Saudi secret services were convinced that Oussama Ben Laden had died on 23 August 2006 from an attack of typhoid fever. President Jacques Chirac, surprised at the disclosure of the information, said that « this information is not confirmed in any way whatsoever […]» 107 .

2 November 2007, Benazir Bhutto, candidate for the Presidency of Pakistan, said in an interview with David Frost on the airwaves ofAl Jazeera English, the name of a man « who killed Osama bin Laden ‘108. This assertion at the simple turn of a phrase is generally regarded as a slip of the tongue and that she probably meant «Daniel Pearl»109 .

On 21 December 2008, in an interview to the American TV Fox News Channel, Dick Cheney, outgoing US Vice President considered not be sure that Osama bin Laden is still alive.

Pornographic videos

14 may 2011, US officials revealed that an important batch of pornographic videos was discovered in the Pakistani cache of Osama bin Laden by U.S. special forces during the raid on may 2110 .

This trivial discovery illustrates the contradictions of an Osama ben Laden, great amateur of Coca-Cola111, which had yet written in 2002 a letter in which he attacked certain aspects of the culture American, including what he called the exploitation of women « as consumer products or advertising tools » (« you have washed the brains of your daughters so that they believe free themselves by wearing bare clothingWhile in reality, they have released that your sexual desire»112 ).

See also

On other Wikimedia projects:
•Osama bin Laden , on Wikimedia Commons
•Osama bin Laden, on Wikinews

Bibliography
•Authority records : virtual international authority file • University documentation system • Library of Congress • Gemeinsame Normdatei • national diet library • WorldCat
•Jean Sasson, Najwa bin Laden, Omar Ben Laden, Osama bin Laden, family – his wife and son portrait tell, Denoël, April 2010, 420 pages, (ISBN 978-2-207-10113-1)
•Jürgen Elsässer, how the Jihad arrived in Europe, 2006, (ISBN 978-2-88892-004-5)
•Roland Jacquard and Attame Tazaghart, Bin Laden, the destruction programmed by the West, 2004, (ISBN 978-2-86477-204-0)
•Jonathan Randal, Osama, the making of a terrorist, 2004, (ISBN 978-2-226-15570-2)
•Carmen bin Laden, Veil torn, 2003, (ISBN 978-2-7499-0044-5)
•Ian Hamel, the Enigma Osama bin Laden, Payot, 2008113,114
•Richard Labévière, Osama bin Laden or the murder of the father : United States, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan. Lausanne, Éditions Favre, 2002, 141 p. (ISBN 978-282890711-2)
•Michel Tatu, bin Laden and thee century XXI, 2002,(ISBN 978-2-9517925-1-7)
•Jean-Charles Brisard and Guillaume Dasquié, Ben Laden – the forbidden truth, Denoël, 2001 and 2002 (ISBN 978-2-207-25320-5) and (ISBN 978-2-207-25356-4); then Gallimard, 2002, (ISBN 978-2-07-042377-4)
•Roland Jacquard and Attame Tazaghart, on behalf of Osama bin Laden, Jean Picollec, 2001, (ISBN 978-2-86477-183-8); then in pockets, (ISBN 978-2-253-15502-7)
•Ahmed Rashid, The shadow of Taliban, otherwise, 2001
•Antoine Basbous, the Islamism – an abortive revolution?, Hachette literature, 2000, (ISBN 978-2-01-235272-8)
•Mohamed Sifaoui, in the footsteps of Ben Laden: the game trouble Americans, Le Cherche midi, April 2004, (ISBN 978-2-7491-0266-5)
•Captain Alan H. and staff sergeant Adam r., on the trail of Al-Qaida and evidence of the Special Forces, Alban éditions, 226 pages, (ISBN 978-2-911751-17-2)

Popular culture
•Mohamed Sifaoui, satirical cartoonist Philippe Bercovici, Bin Laden unveiled, comic biography, (ISBN 2356480838), September 10, 2009115
•Zero Dark Thirty is a film directed by Kathryn Bigelow in 2012 which tells stalking and the death of Osama bin Laden, from torture by water (waterboarding) authorized by George W. Bush and applied in particular to Khalid Sheikh Mohammed183 times during the month of March 2003, having allowed to retrieve information which led to the cache of Ben Ladenwhat Leon Panetta admitted74, in particular the name ofAbu Ahmed al-Kuwaiti75 .

Related articles
•Bin Laden family
•Al-Qaeda
•Islamist terrorism
•Death of Osama bin Laden

External links
•(en) Profile: Osama bin Laden
•(en) Biography of Osama bin Laden
•(en) Statements and interviews with bin Laden between 1995 and 1998
•(en) Article on the assassination attempts of the Pope and deletions of airliners in the 1990s
•(en) The United States on bin Laden authorities wanted
•(en) [PDF] Compilation of speeches, interviews and messages of Osama bin Laden issued between 1994 and 2004.
•(en) Transcript of the February 2003 band
•(en) Video of 2004 transcript
•(en) Transcript of the video of 2007

Notes and references

Notes
1.↑ In the majority of other languages, its name is transcribed bin Laden, or occasionally ibn Laden.
2.↑ Based on the coordinated universal time (UTC) and without context of place, death occurred the may 2011 1er at about 20:30 UTC.
3.↑ Was stripped of his Saudi nationality in April 19945.
4.↑ It is wrongly regarded as its founder, although Abdullah Azzam.

References
1.↑ (en) Scott Shane, « « . Bin Laden as Patriarch « » , The New York Times May 14, 2011 (read online)
2.↑ « Death of bin Laden: the details of operation commando ‘, France Info, 1St may, 2011.
3.↑ « In an intelligence driven operation, Osama Bin Ladin was killed in the surroundings of Abbottabad in the early hours of this morning. . » , May 2, 2011 (consulted the may 2, 2011 ))
4.↑ Adam Brookes, « US forces kill Osama Bin Laden in Pakistan» , BBC News , 2 May 2011
5.↑ a and b « Financier of Islamic networks », in The world of intelligence, no 239, 21 April 1994 [1]
6.↑ Bin Laden claims responsibility for 9/11, CBC News Network, October 19, 2004, read online
7.↑ Étienne Leenhardt,  » the videotape that accuses bin Laden ‘, Journal of 20 hours of France 2, 13 December 2001, INA.
8.↑ The video where bin Laden brags about attacks on Liberation.fr
9.↑ (en) Leparisien.fr
10.↑ « FBI ten most wanted fugitive »
11.↑ « Bin Laden, many Tunisians secret hero’, Le Monde, 10 November 2001 ;
« Bin Laden and the martyrs of Jihad », La Rivista del manifesto, no 24, January 2002: « all this population that seeks to enhance symbolically in his own eyes, lack of be able to tackle the daily ills that beset him, the symbolic defeat America by Ben Laden is enough to make a hero, a hero becoming a martyra martyr goes mutate over time, in saint »;
[ Party of Belgian Labour (PTB) « For which works Ossama Ben Laden? »], solidarity, no 36, 26 September 2001 : « Osama bin Laden seems to have become the hero of a part of the population of the Muslim world who, humiliated by decades of imperialist oppression, sees him as a symbol of anti-imperialism. ». But one must distinguish between anger justified of the population against the United States and motivations of a certain Muslim fundamentalism. »
12.↑ Ria Novosti: «The Hezbollah denies any collusion with Al-Qaida»
13.↑ Fatwa issued by the Islamic Spain Commission, March 2005
14.↑ « Unusual: ten things to know about Oussama Ben Laden », Jeune Afrique on
15.↑ ‘ Bin Laden, a fortune blurred in the service of terrorism ‘, on Le Figaro
16.↑ Official group site
17.↑ Official website of the company. (in theworldjournal.com)
18.↑ Agency TTY, November 9, 2001.
19.↑ a, b and c Alain Gresh, « The death of Osama bin Laden », New Oriental, in blogging in the diplomatic world, 2 May 2011
20.↑  » Son of a wealthy entrepreneur Saudi, Osama bin Laden had become the world’s most wanted man « , on France Tv Info
21.↑ « Saudi Arabia, private Arab spring? ‘, on the world religions
22.↑  » How the Salafi movement carbide Saudi petrodollars « , on France 24
23.↑ Robert Gates, From the Shadows, Simon & Schuster (1997)
24.↑ Le Nouvel Observateur, no 1732, from 15 to 21 January 1998, p. 76
25.↑ Noam Chomsky, propaganda, interviews with David Barsamian, collection fact and cause, Fayard (2002), p. 9
26.↑ According to the testimony of one of his men appeared in the newspaper Le Monde of December 7, 2001
27.↑  » Ten years ago, Commander Massoud was assassinated « , on France evening
28.↑ « Pakistan: the new Taliban Crossfire », Alternatives – international
29.↑ Noam Chomsky, Israel, Palestine, United States: the fateful triangle, edition updated (March 1999), p. 10
30.↑ « Of the holy war on terror », by Jakob Gottschau
31.↑ (en) Steve Coll, The Bin Ladens: The Story of a Family and Its Fortune Allen Lane (Penguin Group), 2008 (ISBN 978-1-8461-4159-1) p. 376
32.↑ (en) Steve Coll, The Bin Ladens: The Story of a Family and Its Fortune p. 381
33.↑ Bin Laden, the man who lived twice, The Economist
34.↑ (en) Steve Coll, The Bin Ladens: The Story of a Family and Its Fortune at p. 401, 405-408
35.↑ (en) Steve Coll, The Bin Ladens: The Story of a Family and Its Fortune p. 401
36.↑  » Crossfire on the Royal family of Saud « , on Courrier International
37.↑ See, e.g., (en) Alija Izetbegovic on History Commons, and many references.
38.↑ http://www.lexpress.fr/Actualite/Monde/La-Chasse-aux-terroristes_492039.html
39.↑  » The evolution of American policy in the region of the Caspian Sea « , Fondation pour la Recherche Stratégique
40.↑  » The Pakistan again threatened by the Sunni-Shia divide « , to The world
41.↑ a and b « Islamism and United States, for an alliance against Europe? ‘, on Spirit European
42.↑ (en)[PDF] collective Expertise of terrorism in Europe: actions and syntheses, Saint-Denis La Plaine, national Institute of advanced studies of safety, 2006, pp. 31-32 [read online (page consulted on 19 November 2013)]
43.↑ (fr) – Al-Qaida, Globalterrorwatch
44.↑ Guillaume Dasquié and Jean-Charles Brisard, Bin Laden – the forbidden truth, Éditions Denoël, Paris, 2001, (ISBN 978-2-207-25320-5) , p.?.
45.↑ (en) Spain: warrant of international judgment of Judge Garzón for… Ben Laden!, September 18, 2003, Latin reporters
46.↑ (en) ‘INTERPOL publish the 3000e red notice of the year’, December 14, 2007, Interpol
47.↑ (en) the great game of Inter-Services Intelligence, Pakistani intelligence (3), Philippe Raggi, 2004
48.↑ Qiao Liang, Wang Xiangsui, War out of range, Payot, Rivages, 2003, (ISBN 978-2-7436-1149-1)
49.↑ (en) wanted by the FBI
50.↑ (fr) [PDF] collective of terrorism in Europe Expertise, national Institute of security studies, 2006, p. 39
51.↑ (fr) website of the Committee on sanctions against Al-Qaida and the Taliban
52.↑ (en)[PDF] Resolution 1377 (2001)
53.↑ (fr) Resolution 1390 (2002)
54.↑ (en) Common Position of the Council of 27 May 2002 concerning restrictive measures against Usama bin Laden, members of the Al-Qaida organisation and the Taliban and other individuals, groups, undertakings and entities associated with and repealing common positions 96/746/CFSP, 1999/727/CFSP, 2001/154/CFSP and 2001/771/CFSP
55.↑ (en) Sheet of bin Laden on the FBI website
56.↑ (en) Lost at Tora Bora , Mary Anne Weaver , New York Times September 11, 2005
57.↑ (en) Bruce Riedel, « « . Bin Laden’s Wives’ Stories of Post-9/11 Life Casts More Suspicion on Pakistan « » , The Daily Beast March 8, 2012 (online ))
58.↑ (en) Bin Laden May Have Lived at Abbottabad Compound for Six Years Jay Newton-Small, Time Sawampand, may 3, 2011
59.↑ The end of ten years of stalking, Roland Jacquard, France Info, may 2, 2011
60.↑ (en) Ron Suskind, The One Percent Doctrine: Deep Inside America’s Pursuit of Its Enemies Since 9/11 , Simon & Schuster, 2006, p. 237; [2]
61.↑ ‘ A new message attributed to bin Laden ‘, Le Figaro
62.↑ Article in the Figaro : here is the new video of Osama bin Laden, 07/09/2007
63.↑ Transcript in french of the message of Osama bin Laden on the site Against Info, 08/09/2007
64.↑ [PDF] Tora Bora revisited: How we failed to get Bin laden and why it matters today , United States Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, November 30, 2009.
65.↑ The United States were able to capture Bin Laden in 2001, LeMonde.fr, September 29, 2009, (page accessed on September 30, 2009).
66.↑ ‘No information on bin Laden for years’, NouvelObs.com, put online on December 6, 2009
67.↑ Contact details: 34 ° 10′ 09″ N 73 ° 14′ 33″ E
68.↑ Corine Lesnes, « the raid on the compound of Ben Laden: details», blog of Corine Lesnes, 2 May 2011
69.↑ a and b (en) « Osama Bin Laden Dead », blog of the White House, 2 May 2011
70.↑ «The body of bin Laden would have immersed in sea», West-France, may 2, 2011.
71.↑ ‘ Reactions to the death of Ben Laden: George W. Bush greets a « victory for America »», Le Point, may 2, 2011.
72.↑ Figaro.fr from 27-4-2011
73.↑ Monde.fr from 28-4-2011
74.↑ has and b Osama bin Laden killed: CIA admits waterboarding yielded vital information – The Telegraph of May 7, 2011
75.↑ a and b The Messenger that led to Ben Laden: Yahoo News may 3, 2011
76.↑ Ben Laden/operation: vigilante UN, Le Figaro, 5-4-2011
77.↑ Tf1 News from 5-5-2011
78.↑ « Al-Qaeda confirms death of bin Laden and threatens to avenge him », on RFI
79.↑ « Death of bin Laden: countries strengthen their security », on Le Figaro
80.↑  » The toll of the attack to avenge bin Laden has risen « , to The world
81.↑ ‘ The Taliban claim a violent attack in Pakistan to avenge the death of bin Laden », on RFI
82.↑  » The United States close the Court bin Laden’s record « , Slate, June 18, 2011 (consulted the June 20, 2011 ))
83.↑ Marc Epstein, « The brain of Al-Qaeda », L’Express, September 11, 2003.
84.↑ ‘How I prepared September 11’, Le Monde.
85.↑ (en) Patrice Claude, « the noose tightens on Osama bin Laden », Le Monde, 9 September 2009 (read online)
86.↑ Alain Rodier, french research on intelligence, Raids 275, April 2009, p. 22-23
87.↑ (fr) notice of Interpol search
88.↑ New York: son-in-law of Ben Laden surprisingly talkative when his trial, Le Parisien, 20 March 2014
89.↑ Ex-al-Qaida spokesman recalls 9/11 with bin Laden, The Washington Post, March 20, 2014
90.↑ Le Monde diplomatique, «Al Qaida, a millenarian sect» , « To put an end to the Arab world » ; The Daily telegraph, ‘Fanatics around the world dream of the Caliph’s return’ ; The Observer, « Where terror begins » ; The Hindu, « Zarqawi – terrorist or Islamist crusader? ‘.
91.↑ Back in Al-Khobar, Politis, magazine article Denis Sieffert.
92.↑ « In these difficult times many hard-to-describe ideas have sprung to mind, but in the end, they provided me an intense rejection of tyranny, sensation and raised in me the resolution to punish the oppressors. »
93.↑ « Ben Laden in 2005video denounced ‘oppression and the embargo that caused millions of deaths, orchestrated by Bush senior in Iraq, is the largest massacre of children that humanity has ever known.’ ‘.
94.↑ In absolute terms we estimate that perhaps about half a million children under 5 years of age have died, who ordinarily would not have died had the decline in mortality that was prevalent over the 70 s and the 80 s continued through the 90s s, Anupama Rao Singh, Director of theUnicef
95.↑ Al Qaïda / Hezbollah: competition between two different action jihadists logics for capturing the hearts and minds of the Umma, Rayan Haddad
96.↑ CNN, February 13, 1999
97.↑ « The Socialists are infidels wherever they are, Baghdad or Aden , » extracted from the tape of February 2003
98.↑ ‘ Messages from bin Laden: very intoxicated info», Le Matin, 25 January 2010.
99.↑ ‘ 9 / 11: « nineteen young people have managed to deflect the compass »», Le Monde, September 9, 2007.
100.↑ Mark Trevelyan, ‘Bin Laden changed image, could report attacks’, Le Monde, September 8, 2007.
101.↑ «Bin Laden threatens Europe and the Pope in a new message», Le Monde, 20 March 2008
102.↑ « Al Jazeera english », may 7, 2011
103.↑ «Osama clips: the period nostalgia», Huyghe.fr, may 8, 2011.
104.↑ a and b Ibrahim Warde, tales and legends of money from terrorism, Le Monde diplomatique, September 2007 (extract of Imperial propaganda & financial counter-terrorism war) 200
105.↑ (en) Article on elwatan.com
106.↑ Miniter, Disinformation, Regenery, p. 33-38
107.↑ « For Ryad, the death of bin Laden is « pure speculation » », Le Figaro
108.↑ Benazir Bhutto: Bin Laden killed, of setfree69, YouTube
109.↑ Tunistribune.com
110.↑ (en) Reuters, ‘ Ben Laden: porn movies in its cache », on Le Figaro, 14 May 2011 (consulted the June 24, 2011 ))
111.↑ (en) Adrien Gaboulaud,  » bin Laden liked the Coca and good shampoo… including « , on France evening, may 4, 2011 (consulted the June 24, 2011 ))
112.↑ (en) Adrien Gaboulaud,  » when Washington tries to undermine bin Laden myth « , on The JDD, May 14, 2011 (consulted the June 24, 2011 ))
113.↑ « Ben Laden: a »global terrorist »impact survey », Rue89, November 5, 2008.
114.↑ «Ben Laden, the true face of a «illuminated»», Baksheesh, November 18, 2008.
115.↑ Actua BD: Mohamed Sifaoui, Ben Laden unveiled. This is not the courage

v · m

The FBI ten most wanted fugitives

September 18, 2014

Víctor Manuel Gerena (en) · Glen Stewart Godwin · Robert William Fisher · Alexis Flores (en) · Jason Derek Brown (en) · Eduardo Ravelo · Semyon Mogilevich · Fidel Urbina (en) · Bradford Bishop (en) · Eric Matthew brake (en)

Included on the list

Warren Jeffs · Angela Davis · Eduardo Ravelo · James Earl Ray · Christopher Wilder · Ted Bundy · Abdelbaset Ali Mohmed Al Megrahi · Andrew Cunanan · Jesse James Hollywood · Leonard Peltier · Marc Rich · Edward Eugene Harper · Osama bin Laden

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AL QAÏDA

Apart from details, pres that it failed you unveiled as fact, that AL-Qaida was a group that was part of the NSA(je sais,ce que vous allez me dire, il raconte deles de conneries,il yoyote de la touf,bref il déconne), but al Qaeda is a terrorist group, moreover, they are both to help the American Government and the autres(sultans ou émir dele de QATAR) (, to work in conjunction with the cia, mossad, brief secret services), me too I thought it was, a good, big terrorist group, as in the times of the direct ACTION, ETA, IPARRETARRAK, EH BEN I fake AL QAEDA is neither more nor less than a Agency of intelligence, which is part of the NSA, as the cia, the fbi, the dea, the nbc

Al-Qaeda

Arabic albayancalligraphy.svgThis page contains Arabiccharacters. Troubleshooting, see Help: Unicode or test your browser.
Al-Qaeda
القاعدة
Motto : flag commonly used by Al-Qaida. The text written in Arabic is the Shahadah, the profession of Muslim faith.

Ideology

Salafism jihadist Islamism, antioccidentalisme

Objectives

Establishment of a Caliphate in the Muslim world,
introduction of Sharia,
destruction or weakening of the Western world

Status

Assets

Foundation

Training date

1988-1992

Founded by

Abdallah Azzam (death) and Osama bin Laden (died)

Country of origin

Afghanistan

Actions

Operating mode

Suicide bombings, vehicles trapped, hijacking, etc.

Numbers of charged attacks

313 between 2004 and 20081

Victims (dead, injured)

3010 between 2004 and 20081

Area of operation

World

Period of activity

Since 1987

Organization

Principal conductors

• Osama bin Laden (d. 2011)
• Ayman al-Zawahiri

Members

between 500 and 1000 assets in 2001

Composed of

Al-Qaeda in Iraq (AQI)
(2004-2006)
Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM)
(since 2007)
Abdullah Azzam brigades
(since 2009)
Al-Qaida in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP)
(since 2009)
Al-Shabbaab
(since 2010)
Front al-Dhanub
(from 2012)
Al-Mourabitoune
(from 2013)
Al-Qaida in the Indian subcontinent
(from 2014)

Funding

Hostage, steering, front companies, charitable organizations2

Group related

Organizations and individuals considered by the United Nations as close to Al-Qaida or Taliban

Repression

Considered as terrorist by

Saudi Arabia, Yemen, United States, Canada, European Union, Australia, Russia, India, Turkey, Japan[citation needed]

War of Afghanistan, northwestern Pakistan armed conflict

Edit Consultez la documentation du modèle

Al-Qaeda (Arabic : القاعدة al – qā’ida, « Base ») is an Islamist movement founded by Sheikh Abdullah Yusuf Azzam and his pupil Osama bin Laden in 1987. Inspired by Sunni fundamentalist, it is rooted in theideology of Sayyid Qutb and the activist kharidjite Abdel Salam Faraj, and considers that Governments « Crusaders » (Westerners), with their head the United Statesinterfere in the Affairs of Islamic nations in the interest of Western societies. He has recourse to terrorism to hear his claims.

Al-Qaida has emerged from the Maktab al-khadamatorganization, incorporated during the first war of Afghanistan by Azzam to feed the Afghan resistance against the armed forces ofUSSR. Maktab al-khadamat was used to relay multiple donations from Islamic countries.

The actions claimed on behalf of Al-Qaida are considered as terrorist acts by most States and observers. The group is placed on the official list of terrorist organizations by the United States, Canada, theEuropean Union3,4 United Kingdom,Australia, Russia,India and Turkey5. Without dresser official list, France also considers Al-Qaida as terrorist group6. TheUnited Nations is published a list of entities and persons close to Al-Qaeda, which are sanctioned by the United Nations Security Council7. The European Union also puts in place of the « restrictive measures » against Al-Qaida and groups associated with8 .

The most resounding operation carried out by Al-Qaida is conducted on American soil on September 11, 2001.Then come the attacks of May 16, 2003 in Casablanca9, the attacks of 11 March 2004 in Madrid10 and those of the11 London, 7 July 2005.

AlthoughAl-Qaïda is the most commonly used name, the group is expressed in 2003 under the name of Qaïda Al-Jihad, « the base of jihad (Arabic قَاعِدَة ٱلْجِهَاد, qāʿida al-jihād )).

Summary
•1 history
◦1.1 . after September 11
•2 attacks attributed to Al-Qaeda
•3 . list of the main actors
◦3.1 regional heads or emirs
◦3.2 former heads
•4 theme
◦4.1 terrorism as a means of response
◦4.2 impact of Islamist terrorism
◦4.3 the money from Al-Qaida
◦4.4 scandals related to the testimony of some experts
•5 . see also
◦5.1 bibliography
◾5.1.1 studies
◾5.1.2 documents
◦5.2 related articles
◦5.3 external links
•6 notes and references

History

Osama bin Laden in 1997.

Originally, Al Qaeda is strongly linked to the First war of Afghanistan. Maktab al-khadamat (MAK), created by Abdullah Azzam in 1980, organizes and leads the Mujahideen before sending them into Afghanistan. The MAK is supported by other Islamic organizations, charitable organisations and by the CIA that deploys in this period an interventionist policy in order to curb and to cut down the power of the Soviet Union, referred to as the « Evil Empire » by the Reagan administration, including through the support groups of any kind that may destabilize regimes supposed close to Moscow. In 1986, Osama bin Laden, former student of Abdullah Azzam, which financed since 1982 the activity of the group, joined the front.

In August 1988, two meetings that includes Abdullah Azzam, Osama bin Laden, Ayman al-Zawahiri and Mohammed Atef are held to determine the future direction of the Jihad. Participants agreed to create a new organization to continue Jihad following the withdrawal of the Soviets of Afghanistan, but without specifying what will be its exact goals. The Organization was originally called al-Qaeda al-Askariya (« military base »)12. Osama bin Laden explained the origin of the term in a videotaped interview with journalist Al Jazeera’sTayseer Alouni in October 2001: « the name of al-Qaeda was established a long time ago and by accident. The late Abu Ebeida El-Banashiri had established training camps for our Mujahedin against the terrorism of the Russia. US planes used to call the training camp « the base », or « al-Qaeda ». ». The training camp in question was located near Jalalabad13 .

In November 1989, Abdullah Azzam was assassinated in a bombing that those responsible have not been identified. The killing could be linked to a divergence on the nature of the Jihad: Azzam opposed to conflicts between Muslims. As a result of the disappearance of Azzam, Al-Qaida is led mainly by members of the Egyptian Islamic Jihad such as al-Zawahiri who advocate the overthrow of the Islamic Arab leaders, in particular that of Hosni Mubarak in Egypt14 .

In 1989, Osama bin Laden takes control of the Maktab al-khadamat following the death of Abdullah Azzam.

After the capture of Kabul by the Taliban in 1996, Ben Laden organizes the formation of the Arab Mujahideen , thus developing the networks of the movement Al-Qaeda13 .

For the whole of the international community, Al-Qaida exists. It is an organization continued, inter alia, by the United Nations Security Council, NATO, the European Union, the African Union and the European Council.

Al-Qaeda training camps have trained thousands of militant Islamists around the world. Upon their return, ‘Afghans’ (Mujahideen in Afghanistan) applied later their training in various conflicts worldwide as in Algeria, Chechnya, the Philippines, Egypt, Indonesia, Tajikistan, Somalia, in Yemen, in the Balkans15 (Kosovo and Bosnia and Herzegovina). For its financing, Al-Qaida has benefited in another, the support of the « charity » International Islamic Relief Organization. Can be traced to February 1998 the date where Al-Qaida ceases to be a network to become an actual organization. Indeed, on 23 February 1998 is issued a ‘Call to Jihad for the liberation of Muslim holy places’ of the World Jihad Islamic Front against Jews and Crusaders16. This text is signed by Osama bin Laden, Ayman al-Zawahiri (Egyptian Islamic Jihad), Ahmed Taha (Gamaa al-Islamiya), Moulana Mir Hamza (Jamiat Ulama Pakistan), Abdel Salam Mohammed (Harkat-ul-Jihad-al-Islami/Bangladesh) and Moulana Fazil Al Jesse Khalil (Harkat-ul-Jihad-al-Islami/Bangladesh). The text proclaims: « all these crimes and abuses committed by Americans represent a declaration of open war against God, his Prophet and Muslims (…). » Accordingly, and in accordance with the commandments of Allah, we publish the following fatwa destined to all Muslims: « Kill the Americans and their civilian and military allies is an individual duty for every Muslim who can do it everywhere where it is possible to do so until the release of the al-Aqsa Mosque and the Al Haram mosque in their stranglehold. » ». It is at this time that Al-Qaida began of actual campaigns of attacks: as early as August, two American embassies are referred13 .

On 15 October 1999, as a result of these abuses and his collusion with theIslamic Emirate of Afghanistan of the Taliban, the Security Council puts in place the Committee established pursuant to resolution 1267 (1999) responsible for the promotion of the fight against Al-Qaida, the Taliban and individuals and entities associated with them at the global level. According to journalist Lawrence Wright, who won the Pulitzer Prize for The Looming Tower: Al-Qaeda and the Road to 9/11 (war hidden: Al-Qaida and the origins of terrorism), almost 80% of the members of Al-Qaida in Afghanistan were killed during the initial phase of the 2001 Afghanistan war and two-thirds of its executives was captured or killed.

After September 11

The attacks of September 11, 2001 are the most resounding operation of Al-Qaida. These attacks also trigger a virulent response from the United States, supported by other countries. They invadedAfghanistan late 2001 with the declared goal of destroying Al-Qaida. It loses its training camps, and its members are on the run. The CIA and secret services and the police of other countries are trying to identify and dismantle the small groups of Al-Qaida members in the world. This offensive in the ‘ war on terror ‘ has strongly affected Al-Qaeda17. According to Alain Chouet, former Director of security of the DGSEintelligence service, ‘ like many of my fellow professionals around the world, I believe, on the basis of serious information, information cross-checked, that Al Qaida is dead operationally in the Tora Bora rat holes in 2002»18 .

This situation led to a mutation of the Al-Qaida movement, it is increasingly difficult to consider as a structured organization19 the Al Qaeda’s September 11 could no longer exist, but it leaves place to independent local cell. These, unable to organize attacks in scope, preying on vulnerable targets such as the streets of Casablanca, or the homes of Riyad17 .

These cells who commit attacks in their own country are a kind of « franchising » of the ‘label’ Al-Qaida. They are no direct link with the historic leaders of Al-Qaida, but act on behalf of Al-Qaida, or their actions are claimed after the fact by bin Laden or al-Zawahiri, or again, local authorities, the press or the public attribute the action to Al-Qaida. « Targets are wide enough (everything falls under the Western presence, Judaism or American interests) so there is always something happening somewhere, giving the impression that Al-Qaida is everywhere19 .. »

In the years that followed, several movements have made allegiance to bin Laden and took the name of Al-Qaeda:
•Al-Qaida in Iraq,Abu Musab Al-Zarqawi group in 2004 from ;
•Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM), new name of the GSPC , which has claimed responsibility for the bombings in Algiers on April 11, 2007 ;
•Al-Qaida in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP), branch of Al-Qaida in Yemen and Saudi Arabia since 2009.

On 10 July 2005, Abu Abd Al-Aziz, a lieutenant of Al-Qaida was arrested in Baghdad, after a raid by the U.S. military. According to the American staff, Abu Abd Al-Aziz was  » a leader of a terrorist cell in Baghdad as well as a manager of operations for Al-Qaeda in Iraq « . On 14 July 2005, Khamis Farhan Khalaf Abed Al-Fahdawi, alias Abu Saba, was arrested in Ramadi in Iraq. He was part of the Al-Qaida in Iraq network. Was suspected of being responsible for the assassination of Ihab Al-Chérifet, responsible Egyptian business, as well as a diplomat from Bahrain.

In January 2006, its Iraqi Branch participated in the Foundation of the Consultative Council of the Mujahedeen in Iraq. On 7 June 2006, the leader ofAl-Qaida in Iraq Abu Musab Zarqawi was killed during a raid air American20 .

Among the « subsidiaries » of this network, Al-Qaida in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP) has a media branch called Al-Malahem Media Production for its propaganda21 .

On 24 March 2008,No. 2, Ayman al-Zawahiri, in a radio message – the third in a week – released by the as-Sahabnetwork, calls Muslims to further attacks against Jewish and American interests in the world and « monitor the targets, collect money bring equipment, carry out the preparations and then – invoking Allah – search for martyrdom and paradise »[citation needed]. However, there is much confusion about the nature of Al-Qaida. Sometimes depicted as a structured terrorist organization whose Osama bin Laden would be the head, sometimes as a nebula of jihadist movements or as a network of independent terrorist cells, no one is able to clearly define the structure of Al-Qaida.

According to The Economist, Al-Qaida would be on the defensive since the attacks of 7 July 2005 in London : its leaders are isolated among tribes of Pakistan, in order to avoid the attacks of the U.S. armed forces, and his supporters publicly denounce its ideology. Moreover, the Western intelligence services are convinced that Al-Qaida has tried unsuccessfully to blow up transatlantic airliners in 200622 .

Between 2008 and 2009, 11 of the 20 most popular characters of the network were offset. The interim leaders have almost all disappeared, most were killed in attacks by drones23 .

2 may 2011, Osama bin Laden, the founder of Al-Qaeda, was killed by a bullet in the head, in Abbottabad, not far from Islamabad in Pakistan, during a military operation on the ground which has been ordered by president Barack Obama and led by a score of SEAL (theUS Navycommandos). His body was recovered by U.S. special forces who brought him would have back in Afghanistan, before immersing in water his remains in the high seas off the coast of Pakistan24. The president of the United States said the death of the terrorist in a speech the same evening. The announcement has caused several spontaneous patriotic demonstrations throughout the U.S. territory.

Main article: death of Osama bin Laden.

The death of Ben Laden is a very hard blow to the organisation, which loses its most charismatic figure. At the present time, none of his lieutenants, not even the ideologue Ayman al-Zawahiri, regarded hitherto asNo. 2 Nebula, appear to qualify today for a such aura.

Attacks attributed to Al-Qaeda

Main article: list of attacks attributed to al-Qaeda.

Rubble after the attacks of September 11, 2001.

Satellite image of one of the training camps of Al-Qaida in Afghanistan under the U.S. 1998 strikes.

Al-Qaida is suspected of being responsible for the attacks on the embassies of the United States bomb in Nairobi (Kenya) and Dar es Salaam (Tanzania) in August 1998, killing more than 300 people and wounding more than 5 000 others. Al-Qaida had also planned attacks on American tourists and Israelis visiting Jordan during Millennium celebrations. However the Jordanian authorities thwarted planned attacks and have indicted 28 suspects. Al-Qaida has also attempted a bomb attack at Los Angeles airport during the Millennium holiday, but the carrier of the bomb was arrested at the Canadian border.

Al-Qaida says[citation needed] have shot down helicopters and killed soldiers in Somalia in 1993, and claims[citation needed] also attacks the bomb targeting American troops in Aden (Yemen) in December 1992. No doubt involved in the bombings of the World Trade Center in 1993 and against military personnel in Dhahran (Saudi Arabia), is also suspected of being responsible for the bomb attack against the American destroyer USS Cole in October 2000. The most destructive actions attributed to Al-Qaida is a series of attacks on the United States of 11 September 2001, an attack that the spokesman for the group, Souleymane Abu Ghaith had claimed on a video widely circulated in October 2001. Ben Laden also claimed mounting this operation, including through a video where he explains the reasons for this attack the Americans.

While in March 2014 he testifies in the trial which brought it to New York for ‘conspiracy to kill Americans, conspiracy to provide material support to terrorists and support to terrorists’ Souleymane Abu Ghaith, who is also the son-in-law of Osama ben Laden, explains that on the evening of 11 September 2001 this last him reportedly confirmed having organized the25 attacks,26 .

On 6 January 1995, the operation Bojinka plan was arrested.

Several attacks and attempted attacks since the September 11, 2001 have been attributed to Al-Qaida, including the attack missed the shoe bomb Richard Reid (who is declared supporter ofOsama bin Laden), the attack on the synagogue in Djerba in Tunisia, and attacks missed in Jordan, Indonesia, Morocco and Singapore. The network has more been involved in the abduction and murder of the journalist of the Wall Street Journal Daniel Pearl and was suspected of complicity in the bombing of a nightclub in Bali, Indonesia.

In September and October 2001, following the discovery of an attack against the Embassy of United States in France, suspects were arrested.

On 23 December 2001, Richard Reid tried to blow up flight 63 American Airlines. He was overpowered and arrested.

In 2002, members of Al-Qaida have attacked the Limburg in Yemen.

Al-Qaida would have a global network of influence , with cells in a number of countries and ties with networks Sunniextremists. Bin Laden and his lieutenants took refuge in Afghanistan under the Taliban regime in the 1990s. The Group had a large number of camps training there, and at the end of 1990s the Taliban themselves became effectively subordinated to Al-Qaida. Since the attack on the United States, the members of the group are suspected of fleeing to the tribal areas of Pakistan, in the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Balochistan.

Al-Qaida maintains very close relations with many other Islamic terrorist organizations as the extremist Indonesian group Jemaah Islamiyah.

The specialists of the Organization say that the non-hierarchical structure of the Al-Qaeda network is both its strength and its weakness. Indeed, the decentralized structure allows Al-Qaida to have a worldwide basis; However, actions involving a high degree of organization, such as the 11 Septemberattacks, take a lot of time and effort to implement. The efforts of the United States and other nations to disrupt the Organization of Al-Qaida were partial successes. Attacks by Al-Qaida since then were indeed simpler, involving fewer people.

The United Nations Security Council decided unanimously on 16 January 2002 to establish an embargo and freeze capital ofOsama bin Laden and the remaining Taliban .

7 January 2015, theattack in Paris in the premises of the newspaper Charlie Hebdo is claimed a week later by Al-Qaeda in Yemen in a video. The brothers Kaye (Charles Kaye, Said Kaye) are entered and killed 12 people. It was found two days later in a factory, they are slaughtered by the GIGN. At the same time, a third terrorist (Fasiledes Coulibaly) kills four people in a Hyper kosher grocery store and took hostage about 15 people; He was killed during the intervention of the RAID and the bis.

List of stakeholders
•Ayman al-Zawahiri,No. 1.
•Nasser al-Wouhayshi, no 227, Yemeni, former Secretary of Osama bin Laden: Al-Qaida in the Arabian peninsula, the Saudi and Yemeni branches merge.
•Saif al-Adel, (former Chief acting as a result of the death of Ben Laden), head of the military branch of Al-Qaida.
•Abu Mohamed al-Masri, responsible for propaganda and therefore the realization and dissemination of audio and video messages.
•Ahmed al-Hisawi, name of war Sheikh Saad, responsible for Finance since 1998.
•Mohammed Moustapha al-Yemeni, operational Manager of the28 Nebula.
•Adnan al Khairi al Masri, Chief of the command general28 .

Regional heads or emirs
•Abu Mohammed al-Joulani for the Syria
•Abdelmalek Droukdal to the Algeria
•Amin ul-Haq for the Indian subcontinent (indo-Pakistan region).
•Farman Shinwari for Pakistan29
•Fahd al-Iraqi, to the border region between the Afghanistan and Pakistan30 .
•Mohammad Omar, was the leader of the Taliban ofAfghanistan and the head of State of de facto of this country from 1996 to 2001. According to the Afghan authorities, he took refuge in Quetta in Balochistan.
•Salah al-Awadi for the Middle East.
•Saud al-Aouataybi to the Persian Gulf.
•Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi al-Husseini al-Qurashi for the Iraq (has been split in 2014 and creates theIslamic State31 ).
•Moushin al-Fadhli, responsible forIran32 .
•Hamza Ali Saleh al-Dhayani to the Yemen.
•Mohamed Nasser al-Wahchi, forAfrica.

Former chiefs
•Mohammed Atef,former No. 3, killed in Afghanistan in an American bombing end of 2001.
•Khalid Sheikh Mohammed,former No. 3, arrested in Pakistan in February 2003.
•Nabil Sahraoui, head for the Algeria, killed in June 2004 .
•Habib Akdash for the Grand Orient (Lebanon, Jordan, Syria, Turkey). Killed in 2004 in a U.S. bombing raid.
•Abdelkrim al-Medjati, head for the Maghreb and Europe, killed in Riyad in Saudi Arabia on 5 April 2005 .
•Abu Faraj al-Libbi, responsible for external operations, since April 2004. Order in Pakistan on 3 may 2005 .
•Abu Abd Al-Aziz, arrested in Baghdad in July 2005
•Abu Saba of his true name Khamis Farhan Khalaf Abed Al-Fahdawi, arrested in Ramadi in July 2005 .
•Abu Musab al-Zarqawi ‘s real name Fadel Nazzal al-Khalayleh, Chief Officer for the Iraq, killed in Baquba during an American bombardment on 7 June 2006 .
•Aereef Sumarso for Asia South-East, stopped in June 2007 by the Indonesian police.
•Mehdat Mursi, name of war Abu Khabab, responsible for internal security since 2002, he headed the 55e Arab brigade. Killed in Pakistan on 28 July 2008 .
•Abu Jihad al-Masri, propagandist, killed in Pakistan on 31 October 2008.
•Fahid Mohammed Ally Msalam for Pakistan, killed the 1St January 2009 by a U.S. drone, with his lieutenant Sheikh Ahmed Salim Swedan.
•Tohir Yo’ yo’ldosh, Chief for Central Asia. Killed in Waziristan by attack of American drone on August 27, 2009.
•Saleh Ali Saleh Nabhan, military commander in Somalia, killed on 14 September 2009 .
•Saleh al-Somali, killed in December 2009.
•Abdul Haq al-Turkistani, Member of the Executive Council and leader of the East Turkestan Islamic movement, killed on 14 February 2010 by a U.S. drone in Pakistan.
•Abu Hamza Al-Mouhajer for Iraq (Al-Qaeda in Iraq), killed during a military operation in the vicinity of Tikrit on 18 April 2010 .
•Hamid Daoud Muhammad Khalil al-Zaman, the head of the State Islamic Republic of Iraq, who was killed during a military operation in the vicinity of Tikrit on 18 April 2010 by the US Army.
•Moustapha Abu al-Yazid, aka «Said», head forAfghanistan, killed by a U.S. drone in North Waziristan on 21 may 2010 .
•Sheikh Mohammad Fateh al-Masri to Afghanistan33. Killed on 25 September 2010 at Datta Khel in the North-Wazirisan by a U.S. drone.
•Osama bin Laden,former No. 1. Killed on 2 may 2011, around 1:30 in the morning following an assault by special forces us in a building fortified ofAbbottabad Pakistan.
•Fazul Abdullah Mohammed to the Horn of Africa since end of 200934, killed June 8, 2011 by the Somali police.
•Atiyah Abd – al Rahman,ex – No. 2, killed in Pakistan by a U.S. drone 22 August 201135 .
•Abu Hafs al-SHAHRI, operational Chief of the Nebula for Pakistan36. Killed in Pakistan (North Waziristan) by an American drone on 11 September 2011 .
•Badr Mansour, high-head of Tehrik-e-Taliban Pakistan (TTP) and operational Chief of Al-Qaeda for Pakistan37, killed on 9 February 2012 by an American drone near the Pakistan-Afghanistan border.
•Fahd Mohammed Ahmed al-Quso, head of the external operations ofAl-Qaida in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP), killed by a U.S. drone in Yemen on 6 may 201238 .
•Abu Yahya al-Libi, former no 2 39, ideologue and spokesperson. Killed in Pakistan by a U.S. drone 4 June 201240 .
•Moez Garsallaoui, recruiter for Al-Qaeda in Europe, killed on 10 October 2012 by an American drone in Mir Ali in Pakistan41 .
•Khaled bin Abdel-Rahman al-Hussainane, successor of Abu Yahya al-Libi42 and potential candidate to the succession of Ayman al-Zawahiri at the head of the Nebula43, alleged killed by an American in North Waziristan drone on 6 December 2012 .
•Abdelhamid Abou Zeid, head ofAl-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb for the Sahelian zone, shot dead nearare ‘ hoc in Mali by french aerial bombardment on 22 or 23 February 201344 .
•Anas al-Liby, computer specialist on behalf of Al-Qaida and brain suspected of attacks against the U.S. in Africa embassies in 1998. Captured during a counter-terrorism action carried out jointly by commandos of the FBI and agents of the CIA in Tripoli , Libya, 5 October 201345 .
•Abu Khaled al-smiled, representative of Al-Qaeda in Syria, mediator between the Front al-Dhanub and theState Islamic Iraq and the Levant and former disciple ofOsama bin Laden. Killed in Aleppo, a suicide, 23 February 201446 .
•Ibrahim Bin Shakaran, Moroccan jihadist, former detainee at Guantánamo and recruiter on behalf ofAbu Musab al-Zarqawi in Iraq, killed in Syria in April 201447 .

Theme

Terrorism as a means of response

The armed conflict of Northwest Pakistan has opposed in Waziristan, which is part of the tribal areas, Al-Qaida members and Taliban against the regular army Pakistan, allied to the United States between 2004 and 2006. Completed in September 2006, the cessation of hostilities coincided with a resumption of violence in Afghanistan, across the border. This war to restart in 2009.

Opponents of the actions by the United States and Western countries in the Middle East and the world argue that the actions of the U.S. Government (and its Israeli ally) have provoked strong opposition among the Arab and Muslim peoples, and that terrorism is the ultimate stage of reactions resulting. According to them, these actions include:
•the support of the United States to the State ofIsrael (due to its occupation of the West Bank, the plateau Golan in Syria, and Shebaa farms still occupied in the Lebanon);
•the use of Saudi Arabia by Allied forces bases attackingIraq in 1991 to liberate Kuwait) (at the invitation of Saudi Arabia). Birthplace ofislam, the Arab peninsula is considered to be a holy land for Muslims that some believe that the presence of non-Muslims in this place is contrary to islam.
•the Iraqembargo decided by the United States following the Gulf war, which has complicated the drug supply and resulted in the death of more than 500 000 children48 Iraqis49,50
•the bombing ofIraq, pursuant to the resolutions of the United Nations, by the United States and the United Kingdom between 1991 and 2003 Iraq war and that some consider as illegal.
•support for the United States to some of the Middle East dictators , including Saddam Hussein during the war Iran-Iraq between 1980 and 1988 ;
•the bombing by the United States of a pharmaceutical factory in the Sudan in 1998 following the attacks in the U.S. in Africa embassies followed by an embargo on essential medical products resulting in the death of several thousand people[citation needed] ;

The impact of Islamist terrorism

According to the geostrategiste Gérard Chaliand, Islamist terrorism is only an epiphenomenon , which, although highly mobilizing the media and the public, has no consequences on the course ofhistory. According to him: either by human losses finally minimal compared to wars between States, mobilized workforce or the political consequences, its action has as consequences zero or near zero, after the manner of the anarchist terrorists of the end of the XIXe century and the beginning of the XXe century, now fallen into oblivion.

Antoine Sfeir has a close analysis. According to him Bin Laden has already failed and will fail in its main project which is to bring together most of the Muslim world of the Maghreb , the Mashreq in a recreated Caliphate comprising all believers.

The consequences appear to be rather indirect and security policies or belligerent attitudes justified by the need to fight against the « terrorist threat ». However, many Muslim countries are gradually political and social policies more in line with Islamic precepts, slowly but surely causing a deep Islamization of their populations[citation needed] .

Al-Qaida money

The report of the Department of the Treasury regarding terrorist assets evokes 8 $ million in assets of Al-Qaida blocked in 2006 and 11 million in 200751 .

According to the afghan Government, money that allows Al-Qaida to conduct his fights would come largely from wealthy and pious donors private living in the Arabian peninsula. It passes through the financial centre of Dubai : « How do you explain that there never Islamist attack in Dubai, land of islam where alcohol flows freely? It is very simple: some Arab Gulf countries bought their quietude to terrorist groups! »52

Scandals relating to certain expert evidence

The role of the CIA is the subject of a debate, especially on theextreme left but also worldwide intelligence53 : the American Agency would have resulted and thus spawned the terrorist organization to fight the Soviets. This hypothesis was defended and developed on 8 July 2005 by Robin Cook, former Foreign Minister and Labour MP who violently opposed the intervention in Iraq and the pro-American Tony Blair’s policy. He claimed in the Guardian « Ben Laden was the product of a huge calculation mistake on the part of Western information agencies. He was armed by the CIA during the 1980s and financed bySaudi Arabia to carry jihad against Russian occupation in Afghanistan. Al-Qaida, which literally means the « database », was originally the computer files of thousands of mujahidins recruited and trained by the CIA to defeat the Russians’54. Others go further away, as Antoine Sfeir who said late November 2008 that: « Al Qaeda serves the interests of the Americans. Washington plays a part of poker-liar with the Arabs, because Al-Qaida exists only in the imagination and is only intended to destroy the Arab world and prevent it from modernizing. Thus, the fragmentation of the Arab countries based on ethnic and confessional will allow Israel to make progress and lead the region »55 .

Maloy Krishna Dhar, former Deputy Director of Indian intelligence, says that Al-Qaida would have was organized by the Pakistani ISI at the request of the CIA and the MI656 .

Journalist Seymour Hersh for The New Yorker and who had burst the scandal of Abu Ghraib prison, in a conference in Cairo, issued [when?] the opinion that Dick Cheney, Elliott Abrams and Saudi prince Bandar bin Sultan bin Abdelaziz Al Saoud continue to fund members of the Al-Qaida network, in covert operations in Lebanon and Iran (two Shiite -majority countries(, Sunni Islam is not recognized as a religious minority in Iran), to destabilize the two countries pushing to sectarian strife. They would also push the Iran in a move that would give a reason in his attack by the57 United States.

See also

On other Wikimedia projects:
•Al-Qaïda, on Wikimedia Commons
•Al-Qaïda, on the Wiktionary
•Al-Qaïda, on Wikiquote
•Al-Qaïda, on Wikinews

Bibliography

Studies
•Nafeez Mosaddeq Ahmed, War against the truth, éditions half-moon, 2006, 512 pages, (ISBN 2-9525571-5-2)
•Alain Bauer, Xavier Raufer, the Al-Qaeda Enigma, Editions Jean-Claude Lattès, 2005 (ISBN 2-7096-2743-4)
•François Burgat, The Islamism in the time of Al-Qaida, La Découverte, 2005
•Jason Burke, Al-Qaeda: the true story of radical islam, La Découverte, 2005
•Guillaume Dasquié, Al Qaeda will conquer, Publisher Editions private, 2005, (ISBN 2350760359)
•Jürgen Elsässer, how the Jihad arrived in Europe, Éditions Xenia, 2006, (ISBN 978288920045[check: invalid ISBN])
•Roland Jacquard, Attame Tazaghart, Bin Laden, programmed the West’s destruction, Picollec, 2004, (ISBN 2-86477-204-3)
•Richard Labévière, the scenes of terror, Grasset, 2003
•Éric Laurent, the Face hidden from September 11, ed. Plon, 2004
•Alain Rodier, Al-Qaida: global terrorism connections, Ellipses, 2006, (ISBN 272982829 X)
•Isabelle Sommier, terrorism, Flammarion, coll. Dominos, 2000
•Lawrence Wright, the hidden war: Al-Qaida and the origins of Islamist terrorism, Robert Laffont, 2007, 440 p.
•That say the scholars of Islam on terrorism?, the Committee of the great scholars of Saudi Arabia, éditions Anas 2004 (ISBN 9-96043-913-8[check: invalid ISBN]).

Documents
•Farhad Khosrokhavar, when Al-Qaida speaks: testimonies behind bars, Grasset, Paris, 2006, (ISBN 2246677513)
•Gilles Kepel and Jean-Pierre Milelli, Al-Qaida in the text: writings of Osama bin Laden, Abdallah Azzam, Ayman al-Zawahiri and Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, Presses universitaires France, 2005, (ISBN 2130547710)
•Ayman al-Zawahiri, absolution, Milelli, 2008,(ISBN 9782916590059)
•The terrorist Handbook, Brussels, André Versaille Publisher, 2009, 192 p., (ISBN 9782874950575)

Related articles
•Islam – terrorism (Islamic terrorism)
•Emirate jihadist
•As-Sahab
•Group Salafist for preaching and combat, group active in the northeast ofAlgeria. Since 26 January 2007, having allegiance to Al-Qaida, he takes the name of « Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb ».
•Afghanistan war
•Armed conflict in North-West Pakistan

External links
•(en) Security Council Committee set up in accordance with resolution 1267 concerning Al-Qaida, the Taliban and individuals and entities associated
•(en) «  » 1995-1998: the statements of Osama bin Laden, « the leader of the (terrorist) Al-Qaida movement »»» (Archive • Wikiwix • Archive.is • Google • what to do?) accessed on 2013-03-24 on the site of the NATHALIA
•(en) « Since at least 1995, the Western secret services knew Osama bin Laden plans », Die Welt, 7 December 2001
•(en) [PDF] Sean N. Kaliç, Combating a Modern Hydra: Al Qaeda and the Global War on Terrorism Combat Studies Institute Press, Fort Leavenworth, 2005
•(en) [PDF] List of 600 foreigners who have joined the Iraqi branch of Al-Qaeda, by terrorism from the West Point Military Academy Learning Center, November 15, 2007
•(en) ‘Al-Qaida has infiltrated the British secret services’, Le Figaro, August 3, 2009
•(en) « The number two of Al-Qaeda threat the France », Le Figaro, August 5, 2009
•(en) « C.I.A. Sought Blackwater’s Help in Plan to Kill Jihadists ‘, The New York Times, August 19, 2009
•(en) «29/01/2010 Alain Chouet former head of the DGSE said that Al Qaeda is dead since 2002» on the Senate videos site.

Notes and references
1.↑ a and b http://zamanfrance.fr/FR/newsDetail_getNewsById.action?newsId=1397
2.↑ World – diplomatique.com
3.↑ Europa.EU
4.↑ (en) Proscribed groups
5.↑ «EGM.gov.tr» (Archive • Wikiwix • Archive.is • Google • what to do?) accessed on 2013-03-24
6.↑ Documentation francaise.fr
7.↑ UN.org
8.↑ Europa.EU
9.↑ (en) Guardian/tea observe « Horror in Casablanca as al-Qaeda toll hits 41 », accessed 16/04/12
10.↑ (es) elmundo.es
11.↑ TF1 news « Al-Qaeda is predicated the attacks in London », September 20, 2005, accessed 16/04/12
12.↑ Lawrence Wright, The Looming Tower: Al-Qaeda and the Road to 9/11, New York, Alfred A. Knopf (Random House), 2006 (ISBN 0-375-41486-X and 978-0-375-41486-2) p. 131-134 (war hidden: Al-Qaida and the origins of terrorism)
13.↑ a, b and c Antoine Sfeir (eds.), global Islamism dictionary, Plon, 2002, 518 p. (ISBN 978-2-259-19760-1, LCCN 2002508143 ))
14.↑ Marc Sageman (TRANS. Maurice Berrac), the true face of terrorists: psychology and sociology of the actors of Jihad [« Understanding Terror Networks »], Paris, Denoël, 2005 (ISBN 978-2-207-25683-1, OCLC 68208410) p. 79-81
15.↑ Nafeez Mosaddeq Ahmed, War against the truth, half moon editions, 2006, pp. 48-78
16.↑ The Washington Post, may 5, 2011
17.↑ has and b (en) David E. Kaplan , « « . Playing Offense: The Inside Story of How U.S. Terrorist Hunters Are Going after Al Qaeda « » , U.S. News & World Report , June 2, 2003, p. 19 – 29 (read online) (translation: [online ])])
18.↑ Alain Chouet. Intervention of Alain Chouet Colloquium ‘ the Middle East in the nuclear time ‘. Paris: Committee on Foreign Affairs of the Senate. The scene occurs in 3:08 – 3:22. (text)
19.↑ a and b Olivier Roy,  » Al Qaida, label, or organization? .« », Le Monde diplomatique, September 2004, pp. 24 – 25 (read online)
20.↑ « Zarqawi-Al Qaida: News International» (Archive • Wikiwix • Archive.is • Google • what to do?) accessed on 2013-03-24
21.↑ Arnaud Palisson,  » Al-Qaida of the Arabian peninsula and civil aviation: the frog who wanted », minority report, December 22, 2010 (consulted the December 27, 2010 ))
22.↑ (en) editorial staff, « « . The growing, and mysterious, irrelevance of al Qaeda « » , The Economist January 22, 2009 (read online)
23.↑ « Why do not (yet) to destroy al Qaeda ‘, Slate, December 27, 2009 (read online)
24.↑ Article of «Western France» from 05/2/2011
25.↑ New York: son-in-law of Ben Laden surprisingly talkative when his trial, Paris, 20 March 2014
26.↑ Ex-al-Qaida spokesman recalls 9/11 with bin Laden, The Washington Post, March 20, 2014
27.↑ (en) AQAP’s emir serves also as al Qaeda’s general manager The Long War Journal, August 6, 2013
28.↑ a and b The Express, may 18, 2011
29.↑ (en)[1]
30.↑ (en) Al Qaeda names Saif al-Adel as interim chief: report National Post, may 18, 2011
31.↑ « The Islamic State is not a branch of Al-Qaida… » 20 minutes.fr, accessed 09/01/2014
32.↑ (en) Report: New leader of al Qaeda network in Iran named The Long War Journal, February 16, 2012
33.↑ Al Qaeda Replaces Afghanistan Commander WeeklyStandard.com, July 8, 2010
34.↑ (en) Horn of Africa: Fazul Abdullah Mohammed remade talked about, Alain Rodier, November 21, 2009
35.↑ Zawahiri claimed the kidnapping of an American in Pakistan
36.↑ http://www.parismatch.com
37.↑ A Pakistani taliban leader killed by a U.S. drone Express, 9 February 2012
38.↑ «  » Responsible for the attack of l ‘ ‘ USS Cole « killed by a U.S. raid may 7, 2012, world
39.↑ (en) Bin Laden docs hint at large al Qaeda presence in Pakistan The Long War Journal, May 9, 2012
40.↑ http://www.lapresse.ca/international/asie-oceanie/201206/05/01-4531981-le-numero-deux-dal-qaida-tue-par-un-drone-au-pakistan.php?utm_categorieinterne=trafficdrivers & utm_contenuinterne = cyberpresse_B9_international_29810_accueil_POS1
41.↑ Death of Moez Garsallaoui, mentor alleged Mohamed Merah Point, 17 October 2012
42.↑ (en) Al Qaeda religious leader thought killed in US drone strike The Long War Journal, December 7, 2012
43.↑ (en) U.S. Slays Al Kuwaiti, One of the Top Al Qaeda Leaders Latin American Herald Tribune
44.↑ MALI. According to a member of AQIM, Abu Zeid died of Le Nouvel Observateur, March 4, 2013
45.↑ Libya: a leader of Al-Qaida captured by the United States in Tripoli RTL.be, 6 October 2013
46.↑ The al-Qaeda leader loses his representative in Syria, killed in Aleppo RFI, 24 February 2014
47.↑ (en) Former Guantanamo detainee killed while leading jihadist group in Syria The Lond War Journal, April 4, 2014
48.↑ http://archives.radio-canada.ca/guerres_conflits/conflits_moyen_orient/clips/3028/
49.↑ http://www.aljazeera.com/archive/2004/11/200849163336457223.html
50.↑ http://www.theguardian.com/world/2002/nov/24/theobserver
51.↑ (en) Bush has protected America after September 11?, Timothy Noah, Slate, September 14, 2009
52.↑ Algerie360.com
53.↑ Pierre-Henri Bunel, Near East, a world war, editions Carnot, 2004
54.↑ (en) The struggle against terrorism cannot be won by military means
55.↑ The last bombings in Bombay, the financial crisis and September 11, Interview with Antoine Sfeir
56.↑ (en) Maloy Krishna Dhar, Fulcrum of Evil: ISI-CIA-Al Qaeda Nexus, Manas Publications, New Delhi, 2006, (ISBN 8170492785 )).
57.↑ (en) Article on elwatan.com
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le 0903201c8

Hi all.

The Rothschild Manifesto – circa 1840? > > Four Winds 10 – Truth…

A short list of the most powerful and dangerous people and families in the world.

1. the Rothschild family (Bauer (was not there was 1 BAUER to the Grand Orient of France – GODF, actually) of Europe, bankers of the Crown of Great Britain, the)

The Crown Temple, in most developed countries, and North America (see link above).

2. the Rockefeller family of New York, Arkansas, W. Virginia, Argentina and the Australia.

Banking, energy, oil, real estate, shipping and intelligence agencies.

3. the family of Edgar Bronfman of Canada and the u. s. (Seagram spirits distillation, film

Studios, media)

4 Michael Eisner, insider bumps media (ABC Co. )Disney, TV, film, manufacturing and distributing).

5 Bill Gates (Microsoft Co.)Magna cum Laude graduate of the Rockefeller of the business school.

6 George w. Bush (the President of the United States of America) Skull and Bones, traitor of the first order.

7 Queen Elizabeth II (family Windsor of Great Britain) , German and Greek usurpers of the Crown .

East India Co.

8. Alan Greenspan (Chairman of the Federal Reserve System, fractional reserve banking official )

stooge for the cartel of money)

9. the Prime Minister of Israel (implemented by the Rothschild at the end of the war!

10 George Soros (Rothchild, raider currency (t) and speculator, extraordinary looter)

11. the Secretary of the Treasury, AKA Governor of the IMF, Rockefeller & Rothchild agent.

12. the Bush family from Texas and Maine, the 3rd Reich, Adolph Hitler, financial

Insiders of the NWO, drugs, oil, money-laundering, officials of the puppet masters. Founder of the

Carlisle group bin Laden family ., I knew, I knew that name, especially that of a son Osama bin laden,

I do not know that I have missed some significant, others, which will lead probably to complaints from several quarters, but remember, God knows who they are and ultimately, they will respond to him and only him.

OK COMPUTER – Very compromising images for NSA…

May 15, 2014

OK COMPUTER – Very compromising images for the NSA

The cliché is damning. Among the U.S. national security (NSA) agency files revealed by the book nowhere to hide from Glenn Greenwald, a photo shows technicians of the Agency at work. It was published Wednesday by the American site Ars Technica. It shows employees of one of the departments of the NSA called Tailored Access Operations (TAO), put under surveillance a Cisco brand router.

This photo dates from 2010. It was part of a newsletter sent internally by the head of the TAO. The legend explains that the left shot shows « an intercepted package carefully open » and the right one « station  »

The multiple press revelations fuelled notably by Edward Snowden carefully describes how the NSA was spying on communications of the heads of State and organizations. An NSA officer quoted in the article says that the routers and servers were « intercepted » before their delivery to different organizations. They were then « taken in a secret location » where it was installed a ‘Trojan horse’. « These components were then repackaged and mailed to their original destination », describes this manager. According to him, this work constituted a large part of the activity of the TAO.

The publication of this picture confirms information from the New York Times, which, already based on documentation provided by Edward Snowden, had revealed that the NSA had spied the Chinese giant Huawei network equipment, including in its facilities. These eloquent images also weaken the position of the United States, which have long pointed to Chinese manufacturers of networking equipment, suspecting them be a screen of the regime to monitor Internet, and more specifically American interests. A practice which engage, obviously, the United States.

It’s crazy, what one can learn on of either saying attacks or murders, which ultimately proves to be neither more nor less than poor photo, or a guy montages which took 5 or 6 or 7 balls (machine gun) in the body, is recovering, as if from nothing was, in short, it seems that, either saying bin LADENis death, showed us his photo, a good number of times, in any newspapers still, that it was this bad guy terrorist, villain certainly, terrorist, also, double agent definitely, finally, he is supposedly dead.

Evidence that Ben Laden was the CIA and died in 2001

The NSA aspire Gmail, Yahoo, Hotmail address books and…

These patients who govern us

The hospitalisation of President Jacques Chirac in September 2005 and the coma in which Prime Minister Israeli Ariel Sharon lies immersed revive the always delicate question of the health of political leaders. In France, as well as in many other countries, medical secrecy and lying often made office communication. The mishap of the former François Mitterrand doctor, Claude Gubler, said that the health of the president of the Republic is not that at all coming.
One of the reasons advanced by the proponents of the medical secret aims foreign Governments and their various intelligence services in perpetual quest for information about public and private nannies life.
The CIA recently declassified a document dated 1979, published in the journal Studies in intelligence, and dedicated to « the very important patients health »… This study looks at the way in which the CIA informed with varying degrees of success on the health of presidents Georges Pompidou (France), Houari Boumediene (Algeria), Leonid Brezhnev (Soviet Union) and Menachem Begin (Israel).
Georges Pompidou was elected to the Presidency of the Republic on June 15, 1969, and died on April 2, 1974, after terrible suffering caused by the waldenström’s Macroglobulinemia (cancer), while the Elysée evoked « of simple flu » to quell the rumors that circulated about the health of the president.
As pointed out in the document of the CIA, Georges Pompidou « had begun to take the weight and develop a characteristic bloated face of cortisone-based treatments ». At the request of Henry Kissinger, then Secretary of State, the CIA prepared a « medical baseline study » intended to ensure that the french president was suffering from malignant disease affecting the organs, « probably a lymphoma ».
« In the absence of information detailed from intelligence sources », the CIA managed however to establish the following:
•the disease was probably diagnosed soon after the summer of 1971 and was not made public
•the CIA was unable to make a diagnosis with certainty but was able to describe in details the evolution of the disease
•the president was severely handicapped because of the pain, extreme fatigue, recurrent infections and occasional bleeding during the last months of his life. He was no longer able to direct the Affairs of the country
•Information from the CIA, in particular at the beginning of the disease, that offered few details, both in quantity and quality, and had to rely mainly on photographs

Georges Pompidou had several lives. This late policy was student of the École normale supérieure, where he noua a solid friendship with the future president of Senegal, Léopold Sédar Senghor. Probably he most admired the poet as the head of State… He was given first to the agrégation de lettres in 1934. Author of a famous anthology of French poetry, this buff intellectual of modern art itself will be perhaps remembered, on his deathbed, of the first stanza of the poem « Sadness » by Alfred de Musset:

I lost my strength and my life,
And my friends and my cheerfulness;
I lost to pride
Which caused my genius

FBI grow U.S. citizens to terrorism?

FIGAROVOX/maintenance – A report by Human Rights Watch denounced the action of the FBI, accused of having « encouraged, and sometimes even paid » of American Muslims to ensure that they commit to

Fabrizio Calvi is a journalist, specializing in organized crime cases and the secret service. He has worked on September 11, from which it takes a book (« September 11, the counterstatement » Fayard) and two films (« the Routes of terror», released at Arte, the star of SCAM 2012 price), and on the FBI ( » FBI: the history of the bureau by its agents « and the series ‘FBI’, broadcast on France 5)

FigaroVox: According to a report published by Human Rights Watch, the FBI has « encouraged, pushed and sometimes even paid » of American Muslims to carry out attacks. This practice seem it credible? You surprised?

Fabrizio CALVI: Yes it is credible but it must be put into perspective. I worked a lot on the FBI, operations like this, there has always been and there will always be. In the United States, the Federal Police have the right to infiltrate organizations to fall from the Interior, monitor, control, and I’d go « all the way », previously where they can go. Undercover operations are very difficult, as for example the operation which involved the first attacks against the Word Trade Center in February 1993. The FBI agents may be recruited directly by the terrorist organization, or they can recruit moles inside. Then officers must play their role in the Organization, they are thus endangering. This is the example type ofEmad Salem: during the first attacks of the World Trade Center in 1993, he was the informant of the FBI in the terrorist cell. Former Egyptian soldier, he did everything to be accepted within the cell, up to use his skills in explosives to help terrorists to prepare the bomb. However, he refused to wear a spy microphone and testify before the U.S. Court fearing reprisals against his family remained in Egypt. To the lack of flexibility of the Office he preferred to stop even if it means passing the terrorist cell at the action. What has happened. After the attacks of 1993 the FBI has done his mea culpa and Emad Salem resumed service.

This type of operation is allowed and even encouraged by American law. However, take someone, give him the idea, the means and push before stopping, even if it’s for a good cause good cause, it is illegal, prohibited. The problem is that the limit: how far can you go in these infiltration? How to discern the assistance to help a group to infiltrate on the one hand, and outright incitement, which is it prohibited? The line is fine, it is a case of personal ethics, all agents know they can go too far. The FBI is a federal organization, thus it depends on political power and its context; the incentives can then be made to give pleasure to the political power in place.

The problem is that the limit: how far can you go in these infiltration? How to discern the assistance to help a group to infiltrate and outright incitement, which is it prohibited?

How can the FBI agents carry out in such cases, to identify potential targets and then push them to the Act?

There’s not really a general rule. We must remember the essential distinction between the undercover agent in a structured group to fall, and incitement. After the way they identify targets is a police work, investigative. The FBI, the CIA or NSA, maintains tight control over the population. U.S. intelligence services have targets, they monitor mosques and meeting places known, even if they do not say. The FBI, the NSA, the CIA… all work closely together, and have a system of listening,spying and surveillance, including social networks, very developed.

Are you aware of similar practices by the FBI in the past? Is this not an old tradition established by John Edgar Hoover (the founder of the FBI)?

The infiltration has always existed at least since the case of the FBI agent Joseph d. Pistone, who infiltrated the New York mafia in the 1970s, and whose history has been adapted for the cinema in Donnie Brasco. The question of the boundary again here once again: to be permanently accepted in the mafia, he would murder someone! The problem is not to go too far. Agents from the DEA (Drug Enforcement Administration, the U.S. drug control agency) have the same dilemma. Training, ethics and the ethics of agents are therefore here essential to avoid slipping.

The problem is that this new type of practice, namely push someone to the Act and to provide the means to do this, is to pervert a practice that has proved effective in the past. Inside the FBI, a debate still exists: is it better monitor and do not infiltrate or infiltrate, even if it means crossing the yellow line to be accepted in an organization?

Action from the FBI, and its potential abuse, are not monitored? The Federal Agency is under control of the Government, or it escaped all democratic scrutiny?

The FBI agents must respect the law so that American justice do its work and can legitimately condemn the accused.

So, of course: first, the Senate and the US Congress keep a control on the FBI. Their commissions of inquiry have a lot of power: If you lie to them, you can be arrested or thrown into prison, for example. Then, one can speak of an internal control within the FBI that is subject to the supervision of the General Inspection of the Department of Justice; However, certain information must remain secret, not to protect undercover agents, for example, to avoid that they are unmasked.

Then, NGOs, such as Human Rights Watch, for example, also perform monitoring and control work. The FBI, moreover, depends on the Department of Justice of the United States, and unlike the CIA, he has him accountable. Finally, let us not forget that the purpose of the FBI is to bring people to the courts. In other words, they must build a strong legal case that their targets are condemned. Suddenly, the officers do not have to do anything, they must respect the law so that American justice do its work and can legitimately condemn the accused. The right is essential, in the United States.

Can the FBI be prosecuted? The New York Times the following question arises: « It is legal, but is it really legitimate? », what do you think?

It can be prosecuted and it is regularly. Many organizations watch over civil liberties. The New York Times is relevant. One may also wonder if it worth it: with these new practices, it stops a few unfortunates who would arrive to nothing without the help of the FBI, all by spending time, energy and money.

What are the consequences of such actions for American democracy? How does the public react?

It does not react. American opinion is very anti-Muslim, and whenever there is a terrorist threat, it quickly down the guard on the civil rights of the terrorists. It is as well that were adopted repressive post-9 / 11 laws, without that person has not said anything.

American opinion is very anti-Muslim, and whenever there is a terrorist threat, it quickly down the guard on the civil rights of the terrorists.

In fact, these operations are perfect for the FBI: they allow to increase the number of arrests, which allows to have a counter-terrorism budget therefore; they strengthen the political position of the Director of the FBI, extremely influential figure in the United States; they reassure the population, certain that the FBI works well; and they allow the FBI to ensure a beneficial show: in other words, these operations, showy and impressive, allow the FBI to divert attention from the public of these real operations under cover, far more important and discrete. Suddenly, the FBI took the opportunity to hide its methodology. This is why the FBI and American citizens accept these strokes of brilliance.

Prism and Cie – revelations of Edward Snowden – assists

5 Jan. 2015… Prism – One of the tools of the NSAspying part of… by monitoring PRISM that would allow the FBI and the NSA monitor Internet users. … led by the NSA and the CIA, is the fifth priority of the community of… protected from group

Apart from details, pres that it failed you unveiled as fact, that AL-Qaida was a group that was part of the NSA(je sais,ce que vous allez me dire, il raconte deles de conneries,il yoyote de la touf,bref il déconne), but al Qaeda is a terrorist group, moreover, they are both to help the American Government and the autres(sultans ou émir dele de QATAR) (, to work in conjunction with the cia, mossad, brief secret services), me too I thought it was, a good, big terrorist group, as in the times of the direct ACTION, ETA, IPARRETARRAK, EH BEN I fake AL QAEDA is neither more nor less than a Agency of intelligence, which is part of the NSA, as the cia, the fbi, the dea, the nbc

Al-Qaeda

Arabic albayancalligraphy.svgThis page contains Arabiccharacters. Troubleshooting, see Help: Unicode or test your browser.
Al-Qaeda
القاعدة
Motto : flag commonly used by Al-Qaida. The text written in Arabic is the Shahadah, the profession of Muslim faith.

Ideology

Salafism jihadist Islamism, antioccidentalisme

Objectives

Establishment of a Caliphate in the Muslim world,
introduction of Sharia,
destruction or weakening of the Western world

Status

Assets

Foundation

Training date

1988-1992

Founded by

Abdallah Azzam (death) and Osama bin Laden (died)

Country of origin

Afghanistan

Actions

Operating mode

Suicide bombings, vehicles trapped, hijacking, etc.

Numbers of charged attacks

313 between 2004 and 20081

Victims (dead, injured)

3010 between 2004 and 20081

Area of operation

World

Period of activity

Since 1987

Organization

Principal conductors

• Osama bin Laden (d. 2011)
• Ayman al-Zawahiri

Members

between 500 and 1000 assets in 2001

Composed of

Al-Qaeda in Iraq (AQI)
(2004-2006)
Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM)
(since 2007)
Abdullah Azzam brigades
(since 2009)
Al-Qaida in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP)
(since 2009)
Al-Shabbaab
(since 2010)
Front al-Dhanub
(from 2012)
Al-Mourabitoune
(from 2013)
Al-Qaida in the Indian subcontinent
(from 2014)

Funding

Hostage, steering, front companies, charitable organizations2

Group related

Organizations and individuals considered by the United Nations as close to Al-Qaida or Taliban

Repression

Considered as terrorist by

Saudi Arabia, Yemen, United States, Canada, European Union, Australia, Russia, India, Turkey, Japan[citation needed]

War of Afghanistan, northwestern Pakistan armed conflict

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Al-Qaeda (Arabic : القاعدة al – qā’ida, « Base ») is an Islamist movement founded by Sheikh Abdullah Yusuf Azzam and his pupil Osama bin Laden in 1987. Inspired by Sunni fundamentalist, it is rooted in theideology of Sayyid Qutb and the activist kharidjite Abdel Salam Faraj, and considers that Governments « Crusaders » (Westerners), with their head the United Statesinterfere in the Affairs of Islamic nations in the interest of Western societies. He has recourse to terrorism to hear his claims.

Al-Qaida has emerged from the Maktab al-khadamatorganization, incorporated during the first war of Afghanistan by Azzam to feed the Afghan resistance against the armed forces ofUSSR. Maktab al-khadamat was used to relay multiple donations from Islamic countries.

The actions claimed on behalf of Al-Qaida are considered as terrorist acts by most States and observers. The group is placed on the official list of terrorist organizations by the United States, Canada, theEuropean Union3,4 United Kingdom,Australia, Russia,India and Turkey5. Without dresser official list, France also considers Al-Qaida as terrorist group6. TheUnited Nations is published a list of entities and persons close to Al-Qaeda, which are sanctioned by the United Nations Security Council7. The European Union also puts in place of the « restrictive measures » against Al-Qaida and groups associated with8 .

The most resounding operation carried out by Al-Qaida is conducted on American soil on September 11, 2001.Then come the attacks of May 16, 2003 in Casablanca9, the attacks of 11 March 2004 in Madrid10 and those of the11 London, 7 July 2005.

AlthoughAl-Qaïda is the most commonly used name, the group is expressed in 2003 under the name of Qaïda Al-Jihad, « the base of jihad (Arabic قَاعِدَة ٱلْجِهَاد, qāʿida al-jihād )).

Summary
•1 history
◦1.1 . after September 11
•2 attacks attributed to Al-Qaeda
•3 . list of the main actors
◦3.1 regional heads or emirs
◦3.2 former heads
•4 theme
◦4.1 terrorism as a means of response
◦4.2 impact of Islamist terrorism
◦4.3 the money from Al-Qaida
◦4.4 scandals related to the testimony of some experts
•5 . see also
◦5.1 bibliography
◾5.1.1 studies
◾5.1.2 documents
◦5.2 related articles
◦5.3 external links
•6 notes and references

History

Osama bin Laden in 1997.

Originally, Al Qaeda is strongly linked to the First war of Afghanistan. Maktab al-khadamat (MAK), created by Abdullah Azzam in 1980, organizes and leads the Mujahideen before sending them into Afghanistan. The MAK is supported by other Islamic organizations, charitable organisations and by the CIA that deploys in this period an interventionist policy in order to curb and to cut down the power of the Soviet Union, referred to as the « Evil Empire » by the Reagan administration, including through the support groups of any kind that may destabilize regimes supposed close to Moscow. In 1986, Osama bin Laden, former student of Abdullah Azzam, which financed since 1982 the activity of the group, joined the front.

In August 1988, two meetings that includes Abdullah Azzam, Osama bin Laden, Ayman al-Zawahiri and Mohammed Atef are held to determine the future direction of the Jihad. Participants agreed to create a new organization to continue Jihad following the withdrawal of the Soviets of Afghanistan, but without specifying what will be its exact goals. The Organization was originally called al-Qaeda al-Askariya (« military base »)12. Osama bin Laden explained the origin of the term in a videotaped interview with journalist Al Jazeera’sTayseer Alouni in October 2001: « the name of al-Qaeda was established a long time ago and by accident. The late Abu Ebeida El-Banashiri had established training camps for our Mujahedin against the terrorism of the Russia. US planes used to call the training camp « the base », or « al-Qaeda ». ». The training camp in question was located near Jalalabad13 .

In November 1989, Abdullah Azzam was assassinated in a bombing that those responsible have not been identified. The killing could be linked to a divergence on the nature of the Jihad: Azzam opposed to conflicts between Muslims. As a result of the disappearance of Azzam, Al-Qaida is led mainly by members of the Egyptian Islamic Jihad such as al-Zawahiri who advocate the overthrow of the Islamic Arab leaders, in particular that of Hosni Mubarak in Egypt14 .

In 1989, Osama bin Laden takes control of the Maktab al-khadamat following the death of Abdullah Azzam.

After the capture of Kabul by the Taliban in 1996, Ben Laden organizes the formation of the Arab Mujahideen , thus developing the networks of the movement Al-Qaeda13 .

For the whole of the international community, Al-Qaida exists. It is an organization continued, inter alia, by the United Nations Security Council, NATO, the European Union, the African Union and the European Council.

Al-Qaeda training camps have trained thousands of militant Islamists around the world. Upon their return, ‘Afghans’ (Mujahideen in Afghanistan) applied later their training in various conflicts worldwide as in Algeria, Chechnya, the Philippines, Egypt, Indonesia, Tajikistan, Somalia, in Yemen, in the Balkans15 (Kosovo and Bosnia and Herzegovina). For its financing, Al-Qaida has benefited in another, the support of the « charity » International Islamic Relief Organization. Can be traced to February 1998 the date where Al-Qaida ceases to be a network to become an actual organization. Indeed, on 23 February 1998 is issued a ‘Call to Jihad for the liberation of Muslim holy places’ of the World Jihad Islamic Front against Jews and Crusaders16. This text is signed by Osama bin Laden, Ayman al-Zawahiri (Egyptian Islamic Jihad), Ahmed Taha (Gamaa al-Islamiya), Moulana Mir Hamza (Jamiat Ulama Pakistan), Abdel Salam Mohammed (Harkat-ul-Jihad-al-Islami/Bangladesh) and Moulana Fazil Al Jesse Khalil (Harkat-ul-Jihad-al-Islami/Bangladesh). The text proclaims: « all these crimes and abuses committed by Americans represent a declaration of open war against God, his Prophet and Muslims (…). » Accordingly, and in accordance with the commandments of Allah, we publish the following fatwa destined to all Muslims: « Kill the Americans and their civilian and military allies is an individual duty for every Muslim who can do it everywhere where it is possible to do so until the release of the al-Aqsa Mosque and the Al Haram mosque in their stranglehold. » ». It is at this time that Al-Qaida began of actual campaigns of attacks: as early as August, two American embassies are referred13 .

On 15 October 1999, as a result of these abuses and his collusion with theIslamic Emirate of Afghanistan of the Taliban, the Security Council puts in place the Committee established pursuant to resolution 1267 (1999) responsible for the promotion of the fight against Al-Qaida, the Taliban and individuals and entities associated with them at the global level. According to journalist Lawrence Wright, who won the Pulitzer Prize for The Looming Tower: Al-Qaeda and the Road to 9/11 (war hidden: Al-Qaida and the origins of terrorism), almost 80% of the members of Al-Qaida in Afghanistan were killed during the initial phase of the 2001 Afghanistan war and two-thirds of its executives was captured or killed.

After September 11

The attacks of September 11, 2001 are the most resounding operation of Al-Qaida. These attacks also trigger a virulent response from the United States, supported by other countries. They invadedAfghanistan late 2001 with the declared goal of destroying Al-Qaida. It loses its training camps, and its members are on the run. The CIA and secret services and the police of other countries are trying to identify and dismantle the small groups of Al-Qaida members in the world. This offensive in the ‘ war on terror ‘ has strongly affected Al-Qaeda17. According to Alain Chouet, former Director of security of the DGSEintelligence service, ‘ like many of my fellow professionals around the world, I believe, on the basis of serious information, information cross-checked, that Al Qaida is dead operationally in the Tora Bora rat holes in 2002»18 .

This situation led to a mutation of the Al-Qaida movement, it is increasingly difficult to consider as a structured organization19 the Al Qaeda’s September 11 could no longer exist, but it leaves place to independent local cell. These, unable to organize attacks in scope, preying on vulnerable targets such as the streets of Casablanca, or the homes of Riyad17 .

These cells who commit attacks in their own country are a kind of « franchising » of the ‘label’ Al-Qaida. They are no direct link with the historic leaders of Al-Qaida, but act on behalf of Al-Qaida, or their actions are claimed after the fact by bin Laden or al-Zawahiri, or again, local authorities, the press or the public attribute the action to Al-Qaida. « Targets are wide enough (everything falls under the Western presence, Judaism or American interests) so there is always something happening somewhere, giving the impression that Al-Qaida is everywhere19 .. »

In the years that followed, several movements have made allegiance to bin Laden and took the name of Al-Qaeda:
•Al-Qaida in Iraq,Abu Musab Al-Zarqawi group in 2004 from ;
•Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM), new name of the GSPC , which has claimed responsibility for the bombings in Algiers on April 11, 2007 ;
•Al-Qaida in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP), branch of Al-Qaida in Yemen and Saudi Arabia since 2009.

On 10 July 2005, Abu Abd Al-Aziz, a lieutenant of Al-Qaida was arrested in Baghdad, after a raid by the U.S. military. According to the American staff, Abu Abd Al-Aziz was  » a leader of a terrorist cell in Baghdad as well as a manager of operations for Al-Qaeda in Iraq « . On 14 July 2005, Khamis Farhan Khalaf Abed Al-Fahdawi, alias Abu Saba, was arrested in Ramadi in Iraq. He was part of the Al-Qaida in Iraq network. Was suspected of being responsible for the assassination of Ihab Al-Chérifet, responsible Egyptian business, as well as a diplomat from Bahrain.

In January 2006, its Iraqi Branch participated in the Foundation of the Consultative Council of the Mujahedeen in Iraq. On 7 June 2006, the leader ofAl-Qaida in Iraq Abu Musab Zarqawi was killed during a raid air American20 .

Among the « subsidiaries » of this network, Al-Qaida in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP) has a media branch called Al-Malahem Media Production for its propaganda21 .

On 24 March 2008,No. 2, Ayman al-Zawahiri, in a radio message – the third in a week – released by the as-Sahabnetwork, calls Muslims to further attacks against Jewish and American interests in the world and « monitor the targets, collect money bring equipment, carry out the preparations and then – invoking Allah – search for martyrdom and paradise »[citation needed]. However, there is much confusion about the nature of Al-Qaida. Sometimes depicted as a structured terrorist organization whose Osama bin Laden would be the head, sometimes as a nebula of jihadist movements or as a network of independent terrorist cells, no one is able to clearly define the structure of Al-Qaida.

According to The Economist, Al-Qaida would be on the defensive since the attacks of 7 July 2005 in London : its leaders are isolated among tribes of Pakistan, in order to avoid the attacks of the U.S. armed forces, and his supporters publicly denounce its ideology. Moreover, the Western intelligence services are convinced that Al-Qaida has tried unsuccessfully to blow up transatlantic airliners in 200622 .

Between 2008 and 2009, 11 of the 20 most popular characters of the network were offset. The interim leaders have almost all disappeared, most were killed in attacks by drones23 .

2 may 2011, Osama bin Laden, the founder of Al-Qaeda, was killed by a bullet in the head, in Abbottabad, not far from Islamabad in Pakistan, during a military operation on the ground which has been ordered by president Barack Obama and led by a score of SEAL (theUS Navycommandos). His body was recovered by U.S. special forces who brought him would have back in Afghanistan, before immersing in water his remains in the high seas off the coast of Pakistan24. The president of the United States said the death of the terrorist in a speech the same evening. The announcement has caused several spontaneous patriotic demonstrations throughout the U.S. territory.

Main article: death of Osama bin Laden.

The death of Ben Laden is a very hard blow to the organisation, which loses its most charismatic figure. At the present time, none of his lieutenants, not even the ideologue Ayman al-Zawahiri, regarded hitherto asNo. 2 Nebula, appear to qualify today for a such aura.

Attacks attributed to Al-Qaeda

Main article: list of attacks attributed to al-Qaeda.

Rubble after the attacks of September 11, 2001.

Satellite image of one of the training camps of Al-Qaida in Afghanistan under the U.S. 1998 strikes.

Al-Qaida is suspected of being responsible for the attacks on the embassies of the United States bomb in Nairobi (Kenya) and Dar es Salaam (Tanzania) in August 1998, killing more than 300 people and wounding more than 5 000 others. Al-Qaida had also planned attacks on American tourists and Israelis visiting Jordan during Millennium celebrations. However the Jordanian authorities thwarted planned attacks and have indicted 28 suspects. Al-Qaida has also attempted a bomb attack at Los Angeles airport during the Millennium holiday, but the carrier of the bomb was arrested at the Canadian border.

Al-Qaida says[citation needed] have shot down helicopters and killed soldiers in Somalia in 1993, and claims[citation needed] also attacks the bomb targeting American troops in Aden (Yemen) in December 1992. No doubt involved in the bombings of the World Trade Center in 1993 and against military personnel in Dhahran (Saudi Arabia), is also suspected of being responsible for the bomb attack against the American destroyer USS Cole in October 2000. The most destructive actions attributed to Al-Qaida is a series of attacks on the United States of 11 September 2001, an attack that the spokesman for the group, Souleymane Abu Ghaith had claimed on a video widely circulated in October 2001. Ben Laden also claimed mounting this operation, including through a video where he explains the reasons for this attack the Americans.

While in March 2014 he testifies in the trial which brought it to New York for ‘conspiracy to kill Americans, conspiracy to provide material support to terrorists and support to terrorists’ Souleymane Abu Ghaith, who is also the son-in-law of Osama ben Laden, explains that on the evening of 11 September 2001 this last him reportedly confirmed having organized the25 attacks,26 .

On 6 January 1995, the operation Bojinka plan was arrested.

Several attacks and attempted attacks since the September 11, 2001 have been attributed to Al-Qaida, including the attack missed the shoe bomb Richard Reid (who is declared supporter ofOsama bin Laden), the attack on the synagogue in Djerba in Tunisia, and attacks missed in Jordan, Indonesia, Morocco and Singapore. The network has more been involved in the abduction and murder of the journalist of the Wall Street Journal Daniel Pearl and was suspected of complicity in the bombing of a nightclub in Bali, Indonesia.

In September and October 2001, following the discovery of an attack against the Embassy of United States in France, suspects were arrested.

On 23 December 2001, Richard Reid tried to blow up flight 63 American Airlines. He was overpowered and arrested.

In 2002, members of Al-Qaida have attacked the Limburg in Yemen.

Al-Qaida would have a global network of influence , with cells in a number of countries and ties with networks Sunniextremists. Bin Laden and his lieutenants took refuge in Afghanistan under the Taliban regime in the 1990s. The Group had a large number of camps training there, and at the end of 1990s the Taliban themselves became effectively subordinated to Al-Qaida. Since the attack on the United States, the members of the group are suspected of fleeing to the tribal areas of Pakistan, in the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Balochistan.

Al-Qaida maintains very close relations with many other Islamic terrorist organizations as the extremist Indonesian group Jemaah Islamiyah.

The specialists of the Organization say that the non-hierarchical structure of the Al-Qaeda network is both its strength and its weakness. Indeed, the decentralized structure allows Al-Qaida to have a worldwide basis; However, actions involving a high degree of organization, such as the 11 Septemberattacks, take a lot of time and effort to implement. The efforts of the United States and other nations to disrupt the Organization of Al-Qaida were partial successes. Attacks by Al-Qaida since then were indeed simpler, involving fewer people.

The United Nations Security Council decided unanimously on 16 January 2002 to establish an embargo and freeze capital ofOsama bin Laden and the remaining Taliban .

7 January 2015, theattack in Paris in the premises of the newspaper Charlie Hebdo is claimed a week later by Al-Qaeda in Yemen in a video. The brothers Kaye (Charles Kaye, Said Kaye) are entered and killed 12 people. It was found two days later in a factory, they are slaughtered by the GIGN. At the same time, a third terrorist (Fasiledes Coulibaly) kills four people in a Hyper kosher grocery store and took hostage about 15 people; He was killed during the intervention of the RAID and the bis.

List of stakeholders
•Ayman al-Zawahiri,No. 1.
•Nasser al-Wouhayshi, no 227, Yemeni, former Secretary of Osama bin Laden: Al-Qaida in the Arabian peninsula, the Saudi and Yemeni branches merge.
•Saif al-Adel, (former Chief acting as a result of the death of Ben Laden), head of the military branch of Al-Qaida.
•Abu Mohamed al-Masri, responsible for propaganda and therefore the realization and dissemination of audio and video messages.
•Ahmed al-Hisawi, name of war Sheikh Saad, responsible for Finance since 1998.
•Mohammed Moustapha al-Yemeni, operational Manager of the28 Nebula.
•Adnan al Khairi al Masri, Chief of the command general28 .

Regional heads or emirs
•Abu Mohammed al-Joulani for the Syria
•Abdelmalek Droukdal to the Algeria
•Amin ul-Haq for the Indian subcontinent (indo-Pakistan region).
•Farman Shinwari for Pakistan29
•Fahd al-Iraqi, to the border region between the Afghanistan and Pakistan30 .
•Mohammad Omar, was the leader of the Taliban ofAfghanistan and the head of State of de facto of this country from 1996 to 2001. According to the Afghan authorities, he took refuge in Quetta in Balochistan.
•Salah al-Awadi for the Middle East.
•Saud al-Aouataybi to the Persian Gulf.
•Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi al-Husseini al-Qurashi for the Iraq (has been split in 2014 and creates theIslamic State31 ).
•Moushin al-Fadhli, responsible forIran32 .
•Hamza Ali Saleh al-Dhayani to the Yemen.
•Mohamed Nasser al-Wahchi, forAfrica.

Former chiefs
•Mohammed Atef,former No. 3, killed in Afghanistan in an American bombing end of 2001.
•Khalid Sheikh Mohammed,former No. 3, arrested in Pakistan in February 2003.
•Nabil Sahraoui, head for the Algeria, killed in June 2004 .
•Habib Akdash for the Grand Orient (Lebanon, Jordan, Syria, Turkey). Killed in 2004 in a U.S. bombing raid.
•Abdelkrim al-Medjati, head for the Maghreb and Europe, killed in Riyad in Saudi Arabia on 5 April 2005 .
•Abu Faraj al-Libbi, responsible for external operations, since April 2004. Order in Pakistan on 3 may 2005 .
•Abu Abd Al-Aziz, arrested in Baghdad in July 2005
•Abu Saba of his true name Khamis Farhan Khalaf Abed Al-Fahdawi, arrested in Ramadi in July 2005 .
•Abu Musab al-Zarqawi ‘s real name Fadel Nazzal al-Khalayleh, Chief Officer for the Iraq, killed in Baquba during an American bombardment on 7 June 2006 .
•Aereef Sumarso for Asia South-East, stopped in June 2007 by the Indonesian police.
•Mehdat Mursi, name of war Abu Khabab, responsible for internal security since 2002, he headed the 55e Arab brigade. Killed in Pakistan on 28 July 2008 .
•Abu Jihad al-Masri, propagandist, killed in Pakistan on 31 October 2008.
•Fahid Mohammed Ally Msalam for Pakistan, killed the 1St January 2009 by a U.S. drone, with his lieutenant Sheikh Ahmed Salim Swedan.
•Tohir Yo’ yo’ldosh, Chief for Central Asia. Killed in Waziristan by attack of American drone on August 27, 2009.
•Saleh Ali Saleh Nabhan, military commander in Somalia, killed on 14 September 2009 .
•Saleh al-Somali, killed in December 2009.
•Abdul Haq al-Turkistani, Member of the Executive Council and leader of the East Turkestan Islamic movement, killed on 14 February 2010 by a U.S. drone in Pakistan.
•Abu Hamza Al-Mouhajer for Iraq (Al-Qaeda in Iraq), killed during a military operation in the vicinity of Tikrit on 18 April 2010 .
•Hamid Daoud Muhammad Khalil al-Zaman, the head of the State Islamic Republic of Iraq, who was killed during a military operation in the vicinity of Tikrit on 18 April 2010 by the US Army.
•Moustapha Abu al-Yazid, aka «Said», head forAfghanistan, killed by a U.S. drone in North Waziristan on 21 may 2010 .
•Sheikh Mohammad Fateh al-Masri to Afghanistan33. Killed on 25 September 2010 at Datta Khel in the North-Wazirisan by a U.S. drone.
•Osama bin Laden,former No. 1. Killed on 2 may 2011, around 1:30 in the morning following an assault by special forces us in a building fortified ofAbbottabad Pakistan.
•Fazul Abdullah Mohammed to the Horn of Africa since end of 200934, killed June 8, 2011 by the Somali police.
•Atiyah Abd – al Rahman,ex – No. 2, killed in Pakistan by a U.S. drone 22 August 201135 .
•Abu Hafs al-SHAHRI, operational Chief of the Nebula for Pakistan36. Killed in Pakistan (North Waziristan) by an American drone on 11 September 2011 .
•Badr Mansour, high-head of Tehrik-e-Taliban Pakistan (TTP) and operational Chief of Al-Qaeda for Pakistan37, killed on 9 February 2012 by an American drone near the Pakistan-Afghanistan border.
•Fahd Mohammed Ahmed al-Quso, head of the external operations ofAl-Qaida in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP), killed by a U.S. drone in Yemen on 6 may 201238 .
•Abu Yahya al-Libi, former no 2 39, ideologue and spokesperson. Killed in Pakistan by a U.S. drone 4 June 201240 .
•Moez Garsallaoui, recruiter for Al-Qaeda in Europe, killed on 10 October 2012 by an American drone in Mir Ali in Pakistan41 .
•Khaled bin Abdel-Rahman al-Hussainane, successor of Abu Yahya al-Libi42 and potential candidate to the succession of Ayman al-Zawahiri at the head of the Nebula43, alleged killed by an American in North Waziristan drone on 6 December 2012 .
•Abdelhamid Abou Zeid, head ofAl-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb for the Sahelian zone, shot dead nearare ‘ hoc in Mali by french aerial bombardment on 22 or 23 February 201344 .
•Anas al-Liby, computer specialist on behalf of Al-Qaida and brain suspected of attacks against the U.S. in Africa embassies in 1998. Captured during a counter-terrorism action carried out jointly by commandos of the FBI and agents of the CIA in Tripoli , Libya, 5 October 201345 .
•Abu Khaled al-smiled, representative of Al-Qaeda in Syria, mediator between the Front al-Dhanub and theState Islamic Iraq and the Levant and former disciple ofOsama bin Laden. Killed in Aleppo, a suicide, 23 February 201446 .
•Ibrahim Bin Shakaran, Moroccan jihadist, former detainee at Guantánamo and recruiter on behalf ofAbu Musab al-Zarqawi in Iraq, killed in Syria in April 201447 .

Theme

Terrorism as a means of response

The armed conflict of Northwest Pakistan has opposed in Waziristan, which is part of the tribal areas, Al-Qaida members and Taliban against the regular army Pakistan, allied to the United States between 2004 and 2006. Completed in September 2006, the cessation of hostilities coincided with a resumption of violence in Afghanistan, across the border. This war to restart in 2009.

Opponents of the actions by the United States and Western countries in the Middle East and the world argue that the actions of the U.S. Government (and its Israeli ally) have provoked strong opposition among the Arab and Muslim peoples, and that terrorism is the ultimate stage of reactions resulting. According to them, these actions include:
•the support of the United States to the State ofIsrael (due to its occupation of the West Bank, the plateau Golan in Syria, and Shebaa farms still occupied in the Lebanon);
•the use of Saudi Arabia by Allied forces bases attackingIraq in 1991 to liberate Kuwait) (at the invitation of Saudi Arabia). Birthplace ofislam, the Arab peninsula is considered to be a holy land for Muslims that some believe that the presence of non-Muslims in this place is contrary to islam.
•the Iraqembargo decided by the United States following the Gulf war, which has complicated the drug supply and resulted in the death of more than 500 000 children48 Iraqis49,50
•the bombing ofIraq, pursuant to the resolutions of the United Nations, by the United States and the United Kingdom between 1991 and 2003 Iraq war and that some consider as illegal.
•support for the United States to some of the Middle East dictators , including Saddam Hussein during the war Iran-Iraq between 1980 and 1988 ;
•the bombing by the United States of a pharmaceutical factory in the Sudan in 1998 following the attacks in the U.S. in Africa embassies followed by an embargo on essential medical products resulting in the death of several thousand people[citation needed] ;

The impact of Islamist terrorism

According to the geostrategiste Gérard Chaliand, Islamist terrorism is only an epiphenomenon , which, although highly mobilizing the media and the public, has no consequences on the course ofhistory. According to him: either by human losses finally minimal compared to wars between States, mobilized workforce or the political consequences, its action has as consequences zero or near zero, after the manner of the anarchist terrorists of the end of the XIXe century and the beginning of the XXe century, now fallen into oblivion.

Antoine Sfeir has a close analysis. According to him Bin Laden has already failed and will fail in its main project which is to bring together most of the Muslim world of the Maghreb , the Mashreq in a recreated Caliphate comprising all believers.

The consequences appear to be rather indirect and security policies or belligerent attitudes justified by the need to fight against the « terrorist threat ». However, many Muslim countries are gradually political and social policies more in line with Islamic precepts, slowly but surely causing a deep Islamization of their populations[citation needed] .

Al-Qaida money

The report of the Department of the Treasury regarding terrorist assets evokes 8 $ million in assets of Al-Qaida blocked in 2006 and 11 million in 200751 .

According to the afghan Government, money that allows Al-Qaida to conduct his fights would come largely from wealthy and pious donors private living in the Arabian peninsula. It passes through the financial centre of Dubai : « How do you explain that there never Islamist attack in Dubai, land of islam where alcohol flows freely? It is very simple: some Arab Gulf countries bought their quietude to terrorist groups! »52

Scandals relating to certain expert evidence

The role of the CIA is the subject of a debate, especially on theextreme left but also worldwide intelligence53 : the American Agency would have resulted and thus spawned the terrorist organization to fight the Soviets. This hypothesis was defended and developed on 8 July 2005 by Robin Cook, former Foreign Minister and Labour MP who violently opposed the intervention in Iraq and the pro-American Tony Blair’s policy. He claimed in the Guardian « Ben Laden was the product of a huge calculation mistake on the part of Western information agencies. He was armed by the CIA during the 1980s and financed bySaudi Arabia to carry jihad against Russian occupation in Afghanistan. Al-Qaida, which literally means the « database », was originally the computer files of thousands of mujahidins recruited and trained by the CIA to defeat the Russians’54. Others go further away, as Antoine Sfeir who said late November 2008 that: « Al Qaeda serves the interests of the Americans. Washington plays a part of poker-liar with the Arabs, because Al-Qaida exists only in the imagination and is only intended to destroy the Arab world and prevent it from modernizing. Thus, the fragmentation of the Arab countries based on ethnic and confessional will allow Israel to make progress and lead the region »55 .

Maloy Krishna Dhar, former Deputy Director of Indian intelligence, says that Al-Qaida would have was organized by the Pakistani ISI at the request of the CIA and the MI656 .

Journalist Seymour Hersh for The New Yorker and who had burst the scandal of Abu Ghraib prison, in a conference in Cairo, issued [when?] the opinion that Dick Cheney, Elliott Abrams and Saudi prince Bandar bin Sultan bin Abdelaziz Al Saoud continue to fund members of the Al-Qaida network, in covert operations in Lebanon and Iran (two Shiite -majority countries(, Sunni Islam is not recognized as a religious minority in Iran), to destabilize the two countries pushing to sectarian strife. They would also push the Iran in a move that would give a reason in his attack by the57 United States.

See also

On other Wikimedia projects:
•Al-Qaïda, on Wikimedia Commons
•Al-Qaïda, on the Wiktionary
•Al-Qaïda, on Wikiquote
•Al-Qaïda, on Wikinews

Bibliography

Studies
•Nafeez Mosaddeq Ahmed, War against the truth, éditions half-moon, 2006, 512 pages, (ISBN 2-9525571-5-2)
•Alain Bauer, Xavier Raufer, the Al-Qaeda Enigma, Editions Jean-Claude Lattès, 2005 (ISBN 2-7096-2743-4)
•François Burgat, The Islamism in the time of Al-Qaida, La Découverte, 2005
•Jason Burke, Al-Qaeda: the true story of radical islam, La Découverte, 2005
•Guillaume Dasquié, Al Qaeda will conquer, Publisher Editions private, 2005, (ISBN 2350760359)
•Jürgen Elsässer, how the Jihad arrived in Europe, Éditions Xenia, 2006, (ISBN 978288920045[check: invalid ISBN])
•Roland Jacquard, Attame Tazaghart, Bin Laden, programmed the West’s destruction, Picollec, 2004, (ISBN 2-86477-204-3)
•Richard Labévière, the scenes of terror, Grasset, 2003
•Éric Laurent, the Face hidden from September 11, ed. Plon, 2004
•Alain Rodier, Al-Qaida: global terrorism connections, Ellipses, 2006, (ISBN 272982829 X)
•Isabelle Sommier, terrorism, Flammarion, coll. Dominos, 2000
•Lawrence Wright, the hidden war: Al-Qaida and the origins of Islamist terrorism, Robert Laffont, 2007, 440 p.
•That say the scholars of Islam on terrorism?, the Committee of the great scholars of Saudi Arabia, éditions Anas 2004 (ISBN 9-96043-913-8[check: invalid ISBN]).

Documents
•Farhad Khosrokhavar, when Al-Qaida speaks: testimonies behind bars, Grasset, Paris, 2006, (ISBN 2246677513)
•Gilles Kepel and Jean-Pierre Milelli, Al-Qaida in the text: writings of Osama bin Laden, Abdallah Azzam, Ayman al-Zawahiri and Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, Presses universitaires France, 2005, (ISBN 2130547710)
•Ayman al-Zawahiri, absolution, Milelli, 2008,(ISBN 9782916590059)
•The terrorist Handbook, Brussels, André Versaille Publisher, 2009, 192 p., (ISBN 9782874950575)

Related articles
•Islam – terrorism (Islamic terrorism)
•Emirate jihadist
•As-Sahab
•Group Salafist for preaching and combat, group active in the northeast ofAlgeria. Since 26 January 2007, having allegiance to Al-Qaida, he takes the name of « Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb ».
•Afghanistan war
•Armed conflict in North-West Pakistan

External links
•(en) Security Council Committee set up in accordance with resolution 1267 concerning Al-Qaida, the Taliban and individuals and entities associated
•(en) «  » 1995-1998: the statements of Osama bin Laden, « the leader of the (terrorist) Al-Qaida movement »»» (Archive • Wikiwix • Archive.is • Google • what to do?) accessed on 2013-03-24 on the site of the NATHALIA
•(en) « Since at least 1995, the Western secret services knew Osama bin Laden plans », Die Welt, 7 December 2001
•(en) [PDF] Sean N. Kaliç, Combating a Modern Hydra: Al Qaeda and the Global War on Terrorism Combat Studies Institute Press, Fort Leavenworth, 2005
•(en) [PDF] List of 600 foreigners who have joined the Iraqi branch of Al-Qaeda, by terrorism from the West Point Military Academy Learning Center, November 15, 2007
•(en) ‘Al-Qaida has infiltrated the British secret services’, Le Figaro, August 3, 2009
•(en) « The number two of Al-Qaeda threat the France », Le Figaro, August 5, 2009
•(en) « C.I.A. Sought Blackwater’s Help in Plan to Kill Jihadists ‘, The New York Times, August 19, 2009
•(en) «29/01/2010 Alain Chouet former head of the DGSE said that Al Qaeda is dead since 2002» on the Senate videos site.

Notes and references
1.↑ a and b http://zamanfrance.fr/FR/newsDetail_getNewsById.action?newsId=1397
2.↑ World – diplomatique.com
3.↑ Europa.EU
4.↑ (en) Proscribed groups
5.↑ «EGM.gov.tr» (Archive • Wikiwix • Archive.is • Google • what to do?) accessed on 2013-03-24
6.↑ Documentation francaise.fr
7.↑ UN.org
8.↑ Europa.EU
9.↑ (en) Guardian/tea observe « Horror in Casablanca as al-Qaeda toll hits 41 », accessed 16/04/12
10.↑ (es) elmundo.es
11.↑ TF1 news « Al-Qaeda is predicated the attacks in London », September 20, 2005, accessed 16/04/12
12.↑ Lawrence Wright, The Looming Tower: Al-Qaeda and the Road to 9/11, New York, Alfred A. Knopf (Random House), 2006 (ISBN 0-375-41486-X and 978-0-375-41486-2) p. 131-134 (war hidden: Al-Qaida and the origins of terrorism)
13.↑ a, b and c Antoine Sfeir (eds.), global Islamism dictionary, Plon, 2002, 518 p. (ISBN 978-2-259-19760-1, LCCN 2002508143 ))
14.↑ Marc Sageman (TRANS. Maurice Berrac), the true face of terrorists: psychology and sociology of the actors of Jihad [« Understanding Terror Networks »], Paris, Denoël, 2005 (ISBN 978-2-207-25683-1, OCLC 68208410) p. 79-81
15.↑ Nafeez Mosaddeq Ahmed, War against the truth, half moon editions, 2006, pp. 48-78
16.↑ The Washington Post, may 5, 2011
17.↑ has and b (en) David E. Kaplan , « « . Playing Offense: The Inside Story of How U.S. Terrorist Hunters Are Going after Al Qaeda « » , U.S. News & World Report , June 2, 2003, p. 19 – 29 (read online) (translation: [online ])])
18.↑ Alain Chouet. Intervention of Alain Chouet Colloquium ‘ the Middle East in the nuclear time ‘. Paris: Committee on Foreign Affairs of the Senate. The scene occurs in 3:08 – 3:22. (text)
19.↑ a and b Olivier Roy,  » Al Qaida, label, or organization? .« », Le Monde diplomatique, September 2004, pp. 24 – 25 (read online)
20.↑ « Zarqawi-Al Qaida: News International» (Archive • Wikiwix • Archive.is • Google • what to do?) accessed on 2013-03-24
21.↑ Arnaud Palisson,  » Al-Qaida of the Arabian peninsula and civil aviation: the frog who wanted », minority report, December 22, 2010 (consulted the December 27, 2010 ))
22.↑ (en) editorial staff, « « . The growing, and mysterious, irrelevance of al Qaeda « » , The Economist January 22, 2009 (read online)
23.↑ « Why do not (yet) to destroy al Qaeda ‘, Slate, December 27, 2009 (read online)
24.↑ Article of «Western France» from 05/2/2011
25.↑ New York: son-in-law of Ben Laden surprisingly talkative when his trial, Paris, 20 March 2014
26.↑ Ex-al-Qaida spokesman recalls 9/11 with bin Laden, The Washington Post, March 20, 2014
27.↑ (en) AQAP’s emir serves also as al Qaeda’s general manager The Long War Journal, August 6, 2013
28.↑ a and b The Express, may 18, 2011
29.↑ (en)[1]
30.↑ (en) Al Qaeda names Saif al-Adel as interim chief: report National Post, may 18, 2011
31.↑ « The Islamic State is not a branch of Al-Qaida… » 20 minutes.fr, accessed 09/01/2014
32.↑ (en) Report: New leader of al Qaeda network in Iran named The Long War Journal, February 16, 2012
33.↑ Al Qaeda Replaces Afghanistan Commander WeeklyStandard.com, July 8, 2010
34.↑ (en) Horn of Africa: Fazul Abdullah Mohammed remade talked about, Alain Rodier, November 21, 2009
35.↑ Zawahiri claimed the kidnapping of an American in Pakistan
36.↑ http://www.parismatch.com
37.↑ A Pakistani taliban leader killed by a U.S. drone Express, 9 February 2012
38.↑ «  » Responsible for the attack of l ‘ ‘ USS Cole « killed by a U.S. raid may 7, 2012, world
39.↑ (en) Bin Laden docs hint at large al Qaeda presence in Pakistan The Long War Journal, May 9, 2012
40.↑ http://www.lapresse.ca/international/asie-oceanie/201206/05/01-4531981-le-numero-deux-dal-qaida-tue-par-un-drone-au-pakistan.php?utm_categorieinterne=trafficdrivers & utm_contenuinterne = cyberpresse_B9_international_29810_accueil_POS1
41.↑ Death of Moez Garsallaoui, mentor alleged Mohamed Merah Point, 17 October 2012
42.↑ (en) Al Qaeda religious leader thought killed in US drone strike The Long War Journal, December 7, 2012
43.↑ (en) U.S. Slays Al Kuwaiti, One of the Top Al Qaeda Leaders Latin American Herald Tribune
44.↑ MALI. According to a member of AQIM, Abu Zeid died of Le Nouvel Observateur, March 4, 2013
45.↑ Libya: a leader of Al-Qaida captured by the United States in Tripoli RTL.be, 6 October 2013
46.↑ The al-Qaeda leader loses his representative in Syria, killed in Aleppo RFI, 24 February 2014
47.↑ (en) Former Guantanamo detainee killed while leading jihadist group in Syria The Lond War Journal, April 4, 2014
48.↑ http://archives.radio-canada.ca/guerres_conflits/conflits_moyen_orient/clips/3028/
49.↑ http://www.aljazeera.com/archive/2004/11/200849163336457223.html
50.↑ http://www.theguardian.com/world/2002/nov/24/theobserver
51.↑ (en) Bush has protected America after September 11?, Timothy Noah, Slate, September 14, 2009
52.↑ Algerie360.com
53.↑ Pierre-Henri Bunel, Near East, a world war, editions Carnot, 2004
54.↑ (en) The struggle against terrorism cannot be won by military means
55.↑ The last bombings in Bombay, the financial crisis and September 11, Interview with Antoine Sfeir
56.↑ (en) Maloy Krishna Dhar, Fulcrum of Evil: ISI-CIA-Al Qaeda Nexus, Manas Publications, New Delhi, 2006, (ISBN 8170492785 )).
57.↑ (en) Article on elwatan.com
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Langue source

1. la famille Rothschild (Bauer( il n’ y a pas eut 1 BAUER au Grand Orient De France -GODF, en fait) de l’Europe, les banquiers de la Couronne de Grande-Bretagne, le

le 08032015 E

Hi all

This is what I had said about a month ago at the Congress, it are billionaires and others, which are not, but who weigh their weight in voice, in short, what I said a month ago, is that the law of 80%. 20% (REP and DEM confused) was valid, it is even the lawnow, is the law of the 99%.1%car, because I learned about one of the section of the net (I do me, callback over what newspaper) that Jewish billionaire ASHELDON emmerderait, any other billionaires, who would the discourse of B.NETANYAHOU in WASHINGTON, and he weighs all of his money

I watched the video, or MARINE is interviewed by journaleu bruce toussaint, another one, which has been rocked too close to the wall, saw the silly question, that he dares ask pause, I wonder, if his c…e is natural, or if it gives training i loaded, because, frankly, Bogart was to be the first of its class, no need to catch up , is a p’tit genius in his field, MARINE, p e r l e p l u s d o u c e m e n t, p o u r q u ‘ i l c o m p r e n e n, has slowed down u, it, i r has better, it could maybe figure out who it is, a bole No, Friday the 13th it is passed, it even amazes me that has hired it in this TV. Navy, do you worried not me, I am very far from change, for others, I know, but I have Word.Especially, if there are some who feel hurt, do you hurt, because, I assume, that I am the spokesperson for person, thats all.

Attack in Bamako,

Mali: several dead, including a French in an « attack » in Bamako

Recaputulatif.

What typically is a quiet area, and especially the Malian army and terrorists in the region, speakers generally North of MALI, to Timbuktu,(rappellez vous le film TIMBUKTU, vous savez celui,qui a été promu àles césars, il n’a été que promu, mais c’est déjà ça) what I mean by that, the French Army (‘operation serval)(, it tells you, something) is this BOKO HARAM, or, AQIM operate mainly northern Mali, KIDALE, BOUGHESSA, TESSALIT, ARAOUANE, TAOUDENNI, kidade, which was taken over by the rebels, short, hold for info, pull the huffigton post journal (world;.. can!)

« Commander Abdel Aziz Hassan Adam Chadian army. Our desire of fight against the armed groups terrorist and to secure the North of Mali. In this area, the borders are porous between Cameroon, Nigeria

Clashes resumed in may 2014 between the Malian forces and armed groups autonomists. The Malians are defeated in Kidal and driven from the city by the rebels who resumed control of almost all of the region of Kidal and the largest part of the Gao region.

The announcement of a truce between the Nigerian Army and Boko Haram October 17, 2014 showed both the complexity of the conflict in its national and regional dimension.While Boko Haram operated mainly in Nigeria, he also undertook operations focused beyond the borders of the country and established contacts with partners in the region, particularly in Niger and Chad. Regional and international attacks on Mali and Somalia jihadist groups appear to have disrupted the Boko Haram links with these groups.Abdel Aziz Hassan Adam Chadian army commander. Our desire of fight against the armed groups terrorist and to secure the North of Mali. In this area, the borders are porous between Cameroon, Nigeria

The attack in BAMAKO, has been committed, coincidentally, in the same way as the Christmas market, CHARLIE HEBDO, Russia; the murder of NEMTSOV, I believe, the bomb, which broke out at the manifesta tion of homage to NEMTSOV I have a big doubt on this one, and bamako to aim as casually as expats in the attack of charlie hebdo now, they are hoods, as pa random, as in Russia, it would appear that this is in connection with the attack in charlie hebdo, as by chance not claimed, frankly, you’re not finished we take for logs, sorry, but all that newspaper combat fate as nonsense, I do not at all, it stinks, frankly, whether the service secret This does not surprised me, I can me tropmper but, I have a huge doubt the trap, full nose,.

Mali: several dead, including a French in an « attack » in Bamako

The HuffPost with AFP

Publication: 07/03/2015 07 h 32 this Updated: 2 hours ago

INTERNATIONAL – three Europeans, whose a French and a Belgian , and two Malians were shot on the night of Friday to Saturday, March 7, in an attack on a restaurant in Bamako, according to police and hospital source. The attack also made eight wounded, including three Swiss, among them two soldiers and a woman very seriously affected. it could have been two other nationalities, EH BEN, no, it is a french and a Belgian

The Paris Prosecutor’s office opened an investigation as it is customary when a French is a victim of a crime abroad, for « assassination in relation with a terrorist enterprise and terrorist conspiracy ». Who, in your opinion, are the most criminals?

A correspondent of AFP on the spot saw the night of the fire exit on a stretcher the body of the national French killed in the hotel La Terrasse, a hotel floor enjoyed expatriates, in a very lively in the Malian capital street. In a nearby Street, a Malian policeman’s body and that of the guardian of a private home were lying on the ground, while a little further away the body of a Belgian national was also visible. Or spunk shit apart in a place known, and for concerned expats, also

« Cowardly attack » stinking Government hypocrrisie, for (Holland, Valls, Reynders)

If you summers Franc macon, like them, I presume, they will put you a carrot Ibrahim Boubakar Keïta

In Paris, François Holland condemned « with the greatest force the cowardly attack » committed in Bamako, according to a press release. The Presidency indicated that François Holland was going to speak with the Malian president Ibrahim Boubakar Keïta and « offer him the aid of the France ». For his part, Prime Minister Manuel Valls said that he is « horrified » by the « abject terrorist attack ».art is, is the way to fuck the world

The Belgian Minister of Foreign Affairs, Didier Reynders, has condemned a « cowardly, dastardly » attack. He added that a compatriot was ‘touched’, IDEM, for this parasyte, that he goes crying at davignon at the Trilateral Commission

President @fhollande denounced the cowardly attack perpetrated this night in Mali against a restaurant in Bamako pic.twitter.com/kP68s53lNi

-Elysee (@Elysee) March 7, 2015

That has happened?

Malian police said at least one gunman entered shortly after midnight local time in the restaurant terrace, located in an appreciated the Malian capital district of expatriates, and opened fire, according to police.

Dozens of police cordoned off the area, and the few eyewitnesses to the event refused to testify by ‘fear’. RFI said it conducted the attack according to witnesses:

« Shortly after midnight, local time, a man begins to launch the grenades in a street in the centre of the Malian capital. In the District of the Hippodrome, the ‘Princess’ Street, as she is nicknamed, is home to many bars and restaurants. She is very busy, especially by Westerners, especially on Friday evening.

After throwing several grenades, which some did not explode (it was not made express it), man rushes into the settlement called La Terrasse, he goes upstairs and began to strafe the automatic firearm prior to flee in a vehicle driven by a complice(Tiens, ça me rappelle quelque chose). The two men are hooded.(it also) Shortly after leaving the scene of the attack, they cross a police car and shoot again.

(Hey, I think, that became the body of the COP died in PARIS 11th, you know cliui, who died on the sidewalk abbatue.)Coulibaly had ties with the Malian Islamists, because he was MALIAN

It is for this that you tip your top loader, when he was fastened with these links in the hands, trying to open this door covers fire, the kalach he slung in bandoulierre, in the back, it is because ‘ he was supposedly Jihad MALIAN, and MERAH, NEMMOUCHE…?

Two suspects arrested but not involved

A daily private Bamako, Le Combat, said on his website web(il peut affirmait ce qu’il veut,je suis libre de le croire ou pas) that a man and a woman had opened fire with large-caliber weapons while a third assailant rode the guard at the entrance of the restaurant, but this information could not be verified immediately. Why!

According to this newspaper, witnesses reported seeing the attackers escape in at least two vehicles, a black Mercedes and a BMW.

Two suspects arrested by the Malian police shortly after the attack, neither the identity nor nationality had been identified as a first step, are Malian common criminals but are « not involved » in the attack, police sourceAFP has learned. Malian?

« They had weapons to commit theft, from small hold-ups, but they are not at the heart of recent terrorist acts » in Bamako, told AFP a senior Malian police, stating that they were « not involved » in the attack.

« A terrorist attack »

« It is a terrorist attack, although we expect clarification. « According to a provisional toll, there are four dead: a French, a Belgian and two Malians », said a police officer on the spot told AFP. The balance sheet was then brought to five dead, three European and two Malians. There are very likely « killed French », confirmed the French Presidency.

A source at Hôpital Gabriel Touré in Bamako indicated as a third European (you know, that it is a European, but you’re not fucking know what nationality, it is, he must of missed someone, he worked, he was not homeless, chais not, what is this team’s broken arm, whose nationality could not be immediately established, died at admission in Hotel. )In addition, eight people were injured, according to hospital source.

Embassy of France in Bamako has a message advising « prudence » to all french nationals living in the Malian capital. Mali is the scene of ethnic rivalries and an Islamist insurgency and he tries to find stability and peace since a coup in 2012. Jihadists linked to Al-Qaeda have controlled a large part of the territory for more than nine months until what a French military intervention the hunting part of the region.

Tens of thousands of Tel – Avivis demonstrate against Netanyahu!

Why the France issued 35,000 gold to Germany in 2014

The Bundesbank has repatriated the year past 120 tons of gold sleeping abroad since the cold war. A third in France. A movement which will increase until the year 2020.

This is a true national treasure hidden for half a century abroad, that the Germany is trying to repatriate its territory. In 2014, the Central Bank of the country has succeeded in transferring 120 tons of gold at its headquarters in Frankfurt. 85 tons from New York, 35 tonnes of Paris. And the withdrawal will still go up in power: by 2020, the Buba is planning to transfer 210 stored overseas and 307 tonnes stored in the vaults of the Bank of France.

Reserves of 3,384 tonnes

« In implementing the plan of storage of gold takes place according to the timetable » says Carl – Ludwig Thiele, Member of the Executive Committee of the Central Bank. His goal is to have repatriated the vast majority of the 65% of gold reserves which are always stored out of the country. Reserves amounting to 3,384 tonnes, or about 80% of the country’s exchange reserves. The Germany provides the second gold reserve the most important in the world, behind the United States.

This movement of repatriation began in 2013 a few days before the celebrations of the 50th anniversary of the Franco-German friendship treaty. The Buba then thanked the Bank of France to have well kept his gold, while justifying his selection by « the lack of possibility of exchange between the two countries ». Without doubt, this was a way to respond to the pressure of the Court of the German accounts and a party Eurosceptics who demanded an accurate audit of German gold.

The fear of the Russians

Hide its gold reserves is a German specificity which dates back to the cold war. At the time, the country decides to store his treasure in the coffers of other central banks in Paris, New York and London, for fear of an attack by Soviet tanks. For security reasons, the RFA had decided, since the 1950s, to hide his gold among its allies in the West. Gradually, this gold which through history, will join the coffers of the Bundesbank, in Frankfurt. Transfer occurring under very high security.

Written by Ch.L.
Court of Auditors: when Sarkozy selling one-fifth of the France gold

In 2004, the Minister of economy asked the Bank of France « more actively manage foreign exchange reserves ». Improper operation.
Court of Auditors: when Sarkozy selling one-fifth of the France gold

In 2004, the Minister of economy asked the Bank of France « more actively manage foreign exchange reserves ». Improper operation.
Gold is now worth 1 310 euros per ounce. © Sipa

By Marc Vignaud

The Bank of France (BDF) definitely has to make progress. After wiping a « severe situation » of the Court of Auditors in 2005, the institution was once again was passed to the scanner by the Sages of the rue Cambon. In their annual report 2012, they recognize progress, but still worry about a too wide territorial network and recommend increased rationalization of activities. The Court notably denounced a decline – rendered unavoidable after the entry of the Bank into the Eurosystem – trompe-l’oeil: according to the Sages, the movement is accompanied by increased recourse to external service providers, or the equivalent of 699 posts full time equivalents.

Beyond its objections, the Court of Auditors focuses on a little-known episode which cost dear to the public power. We are in 2004, Nicolas Sarkozy heads the Ministry of economy. Already at the time, budgets are difficult to buckle and the future president of the Republic is actively seeking to limit the public deficit… November 19, 2004, it announced in a press release to have reached agreement with the Governor of the Bank of France for ‘more active management of the exchange reserves of the State’. It is in fact put an end to the management of good father of foreign exchange reserves, through the sale of 500 to 600 tonnes of gold on the 3 000 tonnes then held by the Bank of France. The yellow metal, which reported no interest, must be replaced by a portfolio in foreign currency intended to improve yields. The state table on an income greater than EUR 200 million per year.

Less lucid than its partners

Except that the operation is anything but a bargain. Between December 2004 and September 2009, the BDF separates a fifth of its stock of thin metal (589 tonnes). And pockets, in aggregate, a jackpot of 4.67 billion. But the course of gold, continues to grow! For three years, he took 94%. In the end, if the program had not been executed, the value of the reserves in gold of the Bank of France would have reached EUR 19.4 billion at end of 2010, when that reinvestment in foreign currencies amounted to only € 9.2 billion!

Amazing when we know that « the pace of implementation of the programme of sale » should depend on the judgment of the Governor of the BDF on its desirability, « especially in the light of the evolution of prices observed in the gold market ». Several countries, engaged in similar programmes, have also chosen to end earlier, such as the Belgium in 2005, Portugal in 2006 and Spain in 2007. Not the France.

Gold reserves:

The HuffPost| By Grégory Raymond

Publication: 29/11/2014

still, a tench, who does not want to make a difference, the LIKKOUD is a supremacist in israel, but happy, part the simple of mind, a guy, who said ca)

ECONOMY – European nationalist parties are conspicuous by their differences, it would seem that the attractiveness of gold is a vector of reconciliation. Sunday, November 30, the Swiss gave their opinion on a popular initiative called ‘Save the gold of the Switzerland’. At 76%, they said ‘no’ to the text. Citizens could decide in part of the strategy of the Swiss National Bank (SNB). The vote was on three points: repatriate retained abroad the Switzerland gold, the SNB prohibit all future gold sales and finally, if ‘yes’ won, it would have to hold at least 20% of its assets in physical gold.

This initiative had anyway have little chance of succeeding, but it had the merit of having given ideas to the national Front. Monday, Marine Le Pen sent an open letter to the Government of the Bank of France Christian Noyer, requesting an audit of the national reserve. The President of FN seeks a complete inventory of the quantities of physical gold, while calling « on the basis of the situation that we will discover’ to all kinds of measures.

Helter Skelter, she cites urgent repatriation on french soil of all gold outside the country, or even immediate discontinuation of any program of transfer of gold. « Before even the outbreak of the crisis of 2008 », she writes, « The National Front had anticipated and informed the political institutions of the future worsening of the macroeconomic and geopolitical context ». For Marine Le Pen « the implementation of these measures is decisive for the future of France facing the socio-economic disturbances that may occur ».

And also: Swiss reject texts on gold, the tax package and immigration

A country that time up its currency to gold would limit the inflationary excesses, as well as the loss of its value. It is also useful to recall that the national Front calls out of the France of the euro…

Where and how much gold for the France?

But should we be worried for our current Gold stock? In theory, because 91% 2435 tons of gold from the Bank of France are preserved under the Parisian building, 28 m deep. Located in the eighth basement, in the 1st arrondissement of Paris, « the underground » is a spectacular bunker room of 11,000 square meters.

At the current price of gold, the national hoard totalled more than EUR 110 billion. After the United States and the Germany, the France is, elbow to elbow with the Italy, the third holder of gold in the world.

On the other hand, the Switzerland is more exposed. If the SNB to ensure that 70% of its gold is kept in Zürich, the remaining balance is spread between Britain (20%) and Canada (10%). On the other hand, gold represents less than 10% of its assets against over 60% for the France, the Germany or the United States. However, the SNB recalls that the country holds gold reserves the highest per capita, i.e. 4.2 ounces, against 1.2 ounce by French and 0.8 ounce per American.

« The SNB has done a real hype, » launches with echoes Dominique Casaï, founder of the Swiss investment company Uram. He recalled that the share of gold in the international reserves of the Switzerland much declined in recent years. « At the end of the 1990s, the Switzerland had 2.590 tons of gold. » Between 2000 and 2005, the SNB sold 1,300 tonnes, while gold did not exceed $ 400. « It’s a huge shortfall, » are expert, annoys before adding that among major currencies, cover or of the Swiss franc is now extremely low.

Sarkozy had launched a programme of selling gold in 2004

French reserves had been under the spotlight in 2004, when Nicolas Sarkozy, then Finance Minister, had decided to sell more than 580 tons of gold. The goal was to boost the currency for the State portfolio. Executed between 2004 and 2009, this program however was pinned by the Court of Auditors. Reason: in 2007, the financial crisis has caused the price of gold soaring and would have required discontinuation of sales. Except that the sale program was conducted until its completion in 2009. According to the Bank of France, the dollars purchased at low price would have been profitably placed.

You’ll understand, gold reserves have become a real political subject. And the recent so-called mishap of the Germany is not going to lie this assertion… Berlin would have had difficulties with the US Federal Reserve, which stores its reserves since the cold war. Russia Today chain, near the Kremlin, and released a information like what the German representatives would be seen ban visit the coffers of the Fed. There is no more was to rekindle the flame of some conspiracy theorists whose theories have flourished on the Internet. « The Germany, which are stored almost half of its reserves in gold, has good reason to worry, U.S. financial institutions are known to sell which does not really exist, » threatened the site Internet of Russia Today.

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«Legal» tax practices

LUXEMBOURG – The Government was quick to react to the LuxLeaks case. The Prime Minister, Deputy Prime Minister and the Ministers of Justice and finance have convened emergency press.

To find out how the Grand Duchy intends to deal with the problem of prostitution, it will revert. The press conference that was scheduled for Thursday at 11: 00 has been cancelled « for reasons of political news » indicates the Government. And for cause, the LuxLeaks seem to have somewhat modified calendars and blow a wind of panic. Thus, the press was convened at 10:10 for a press conference at 10:30.

Prime Minister, Deputy Prime Minister, Minister of Justice and Minister of finance are there to respond to the case which is the Luxembourg in the world. «This does not give a good image of the Luxembourg», launched the head of Government, Xavier Bettel. Before going, however: « the ruling corresponds to international rules. The ‘tax ruling’ ‘ is not a speciality of the Luxembourg, many European countries practise», explained his side his Finance Minister, Pierre Gramegna.

This practice, which is legal and is not only the Luxembourg, allows a company to ask in advance how his situation will be treated by the tax authorities of a country, and to get some legal safeguards.
This influences the distribution of taxable profit of a multinational between subsidiaries located in different countries, allowing it to tax optimization. This practice « gives certainty and predictability to companies on the manner in which a transaction will be processed fiscally, » explained Pierre Gramegna, stressing that it was « consistent with community standards and the OECD ».

Pressures to avoid an investigation into LuxLeaks

LUXEMBOURG- Several MEPs have withdrawn their support for the creation of a commission of inquiry into LuxLeaks. They received pressure.

Five parliamentarians have withdrawn their support for the motion: Renate Sommer (Germany), Jérôme Lavrilleux (France), Kyrtsos Georgios (Greece), Dieter-Lebrecht Koch (Germany) and Sven Schulze (Germany). (photo: DPA v European Parliament)

Thecase LuxLeaks could well make pschitt. According the essentialinformation, five MEPs from the Conservative Party (EPP) withdrew their signatures on the request for a commission of inquiry into the case of secret tax agreements between the Luxembourg and multinationals. Parliamentarians of EPP, to which belong especially the Luxembourg CSV, the French UMP and the German CDU, would receive a lot of pressure. Most got the name of the five members who have turned gown: the Germans Dieter – Lebrecht Koch, Sven Schulze and Renate Sommer, the French Jérôme Lavrilleux (also involved in the case Bygmalion in France), as well as the Greek Kyrtsos Georgios.

Slideshow Affair LuxLeaks

So the president of the European Council should take into account the motion on 5 February, it must be approved by a quarter of MEPs, or 188. On January 22, 197 were favourable, including 20 of the EPP. If five more defection, the commission of inquiry on LuxLeaks will already be history. German MEP Markus Ferber (EPP) think know why some of his colleagues are removed. According to him, they undergo very strong pressure on the part of their hierarchy. « Myself I know it, » explains one who always supports the initiative. The head of fraction of EPP, Manfred Weber, would have warned his colleagues that the signatories who would not notice change would in future private speaking time, could no longer submit reports or participate in commissions. « In relation to me, this was not enough to intimidate me », resumes Markus Ferber.

« Smoking out strategy ».

« I heard that this affair created quite a stir, » explains the Luxembourg Viviane Reding (EPP), which does however not confirm the pressure exerted by its head of fraction. Ecologist Claude Turmes MEP gives a different story: « the brains of the EPP are bitter towards the members who have signed the motion. Five MEPs who have changed their position could not be reached by most, despite several attempts. On its website, Dieter – Lebrecht Koch wrote: « I have preferred to sign the motion. The prospect of giving satisfaction to the extreme left, who wants to « obstruct Jean-Claude Juncker (Editor’s Note: president of the European Commission and Prime Minister of Luxembourg at the time of the negotiation of the tax rulings)», would have to change his mind.

The Austrian Michel Reimon, Greens, is at the initiative of the motion. It assumes the personality of Juncker is the origin of the withdrawal of the MEPs of the EPP. « It is a game of power exercised by the Conservatives and the Social Democrats.  » The goal is not to destabilize the president of the Commission. The Conservatives also fear that a LuxLeaks survey does harm to the European economy and disrupts European taxation. « They fear massive consequences for several large companies.

If the commission of inquiry were rejected, the LuxLeaks case were at Parliament’s economic and Monetary Affairs Committee. «We would then see a smoking policy», according to Markus Ferber. As Michel Reimon as Markus Ferber are surprised by the extent of the pressures. «Also pressures than in national parliaments where members can bring down a Government are not commonplace here», according to the Austrian MEP. « This is anything but a normal situation, » notes his German colleague.

Congress is preparing in 2015 pour verification of the command of the federal reserve, long sought by Ron Paul

Paul Rand resumes because the father; Janet Yellen opposed to stricter monitoring

Reserve Federal President Janet L. Yellen said earlier this month, the remains of the Fed is opposed to strict plu UN control of its decisions of monetary policy, and Reuters one it the reported and pay other Fed officials put pressure on Capitol Hill that he abandoned the thrust of the audit. (Partners… more >

By Stephen Dinan – the Washington Times – Wednesday, December 31, 2014

After years of being blocked by the Democratic leader Harry ReidtheSenate will finally have a chance year for vote on the legislation next pour forcer a general audit of the Federal Reserve decision-making.

Once defends them Congress by formerRep. Ron Paul push to force the Central Bank of the country to undergo a full audit was taken over by his son,Senator Paul Rand, and others, and enjoys the support of the leader of the new Republican majority, Senator Mitch McConnell, Republican Kentucky, does the Agency declare the legislation will win a floor vote.

But despite support in the House, where the legislation passed twice, crushing Bill is not a sure thing in theSenateand theFEDitself is repulsive. President Yellen earlier this month said the Fed remains opposed to UN of plu strict control of its monetary policy decisions, and Reuters one it the reported and other Fed officials make pressure on Capitol Hill pay that he was abandoning the boost verification.

« In 1978Congressexplicitly adopted a law pour ensure that there would be noGAOaudit of monetary policy decision-making, namely political audits. » I hope that this will continue, and I will try to defend forcefully why it is important, « Ms. Yellen said to journalists at a conference of press two weeks ago.

Of supporters for theCongress, the fight is a matter of constitutional prerogatives and good governance. They argue that recovery Act of 2009 from president Obama, which amounted to $800 billion in spending cuts and taxes, has been overshadowed by billions of dollars of stimulus the FED oversaw.

The of they got the chance in the House, where the legislation providing for verification a past twice, including most recently in September on a vote of 333-92. All except a Republican and more than half of Democrats in the House, voted for the law.

ButMr. Reid , Democrat of Nevada, a case the Bill refused to give the time of Senate , placing bottle top en 2012 and 2014.

Norm Singleton, Vice President of policy at the campaign pour freedom,Ron Paul’spolitical organization, said that was striking because, in 2010,Mr. Reid seemed to launch son support behind to do an audit.

Mr. Reid side suffered them huge losses in the November elections, with GOP NET nine seats – enough pour a majority of 54-46, offering control over the timing of parole to Mr. McConnell and undercutting Mr. Reid power of.

« His refusal to bring the popular legislation as ‘theEDFAudit’ ground is main reasons why it is to be demoted to the minority leader, » said Mr. Singleton, who spent several years as a Legislative DirectorMr. Paul from in the House. «  » «  » The the change Senate leadership presents it with the best opportunity yet for a stand-alone vote ‘ the Fed Audit.’ »

However, he said that they are not take anything pour acquis, especially after the report thatFEDofficials are quietly lobbying against a surveillance rained.

« It is popular with 75% of the American people, but it is not popular among the Wall Street; It is not popular with banks; It is not popular with foreign central banks, « said Mr. Singleton. » »These hold a good amount of swaying between the two parties, just so to say that a change of party necessarily mean we will be able to audit the Fed is the best chance now that we had before, but this isn’t a slam dunk. »

Sergio Gor, of United Nations spokesmanPaul Senatorthe former Congressman son and current Senator from Kentucky, said they will make that Bill is available for newCongress.

« It will be among the first pieces of legislation to be introduced as soon as the newCongress » convenes in January, said Mr. Gor. « The federal reserve transparency remains a top priority for Senator Paul Rand .. »

Congresscreated theFederal Reservethere is nearly a century. The system, which includes a Board of Directors and the 12 regional banks acts as lender of last resort to the banking system of the country, and it is loaded with the fight against inflation and to the promotion of economic growth and employment.

Paul Rand resumes because the father; Janet Yellen opposed to stricter monitoring

Federal Reserve President Janet L. Yellen said earlier this month, the remains of the Fed will opposed to stricter control of its monetary policy decisions, and Reuters reported that she and other Fed officials put pressure on Capitol Hill that he abandoned the thrust of the audit. (Partners… more >

It sets interest rates have a direct impact on the rates that banks charge consumers, but Congress shielded from some of the decisions of the Council’s views in order to give the Agency’s independence.

Now, after the recent financial collapse, several legislators have begun to question the FED decisions of and want to watch more closely why it took these measures.

The audit of the legislation would give the Government Accountability Office is Congress leader investigation arm, the power to retroactively – but not actually reverse – the FED’s decision-making, especially on monetary policy.

Ms. Yellen has already regularly testify to Congress decision-making context and reports of meetings are released years after the facts. But Ms. Yellen and his supporters say giving the GAO audit powers may arise to have their decisions examined almost in real time, which say, could influence the closed-door Fed deliberations.

« If the members of the Council are aware that their statements may become public, they can be inhibited to talk frankly economic trends they observe or monetary policies, as according to them, better respond to current conditions, » Rep. Elijah E. Cummings, Democrat of Maryland, said in leading the fight against the Bill in September.

Mr. Cummings said if GAO received the power to audit the FED members of Congress could use their own ability to ask some checks as a way to influence the deliberations of the Council.

Congress has approved several more limited audits of the FED , including one arising out of the Dodd-Frank Act written in the wake of the collapse of Wall Street. The audit, reported in 2011, found the Fed repeatedly invoked emergency powers to extend its lending activities in 2008 and 2009, including major loans to support the housing market.
Langue source

Ainsi, la presse a été convoquée à 10h10 pour une conférence de presse à 10h30.

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http://senor-information.over-blog.com/ chantaldupille.fr blog very, very interesting, for foreigners (translation required), and for all the world, go on this blog, all that you wanted to know on EI, without asking http://senor-information.over-blog.com

like what, we’re told, really bullshit, that I particularly like, it is the recruitment of Iraqi soldiers, who mostly come from prison, but, read the very informative article

A campaign of an immeasurable void in Israel (B.NETANYAHOU)

Published Tuesday, February 17, 2015

It is not tomorrow the day before that we will have the right to attend a real electoral campaign, with parties featuring programs, major projects, addressing the Israeli people, offering discussions of ideas and society in Israel. Us, Israeli citizens, have the right to invective on false subjects, of leaders stuck for ideas, the excessive ego and who think all have the abilities to lead the country.

0156064505 0603 at 17 h 51, here’s the phone number, who called me 2 times in 1 month space (I know you have nothing to fuck, too, but I broadcasts on a case, or) If a keuf, or one could locate it, it proves well that I tell not that bullshit thanks, of avance.et MEF, it feels , under Ceausescu would not a function code, indicative of PARIS a name indicating the hierarchical position of the user, indicative of authority. Even closed, your mobile phone can be heard… – VIVE LA… read this, you will understand why, it will watch for the phone. ?

Sivens , see friend PS, your project, because a listen to Mr Vlach, MP PS du Tarn, I believe, is said to be the basis of everything, finally project, I think that actually, as, he said so well, « the project that we have been well put together and well done », good, agree, it is him that he says short, the project, which was so well done, and so well put together, would have been built at the same location that you (not you personally, but the dam pro) have designated, and it would not have been halved, as in the report, I realize that

In this story, all the world is losing, pro dam see their BB if, well put together, moved to another location, and shall be reduced by half of fleet, and the zadistes have orders to leave, so they will quickly, I think, because they did not want to have a 2nd REMI FRAISSE, it would be stupid and I don’t honestly feel that they are that said, I understand the frustration of residents, seen as his field representative, a vast junkyard, Cela, does nothing, the problem, instead it aggravates him, that even if it is against, the project, (Nothing prevents the cleanliness of the premises,)

I am from think this adjoining farmer to the plot, or to be built the future dam, who went on TV (on-screen, it seemed to be skinny and well in appearances, but these words evoked earlier resignation, short) told this man, that he should déménagé(EH OUAI, reconnu d’utilité public,le site, soit disant) and Unfortunately, this was not the only one, so moved to the minimum, a farm full, this, as means, , shed for tractor, Tower (fraiseur – tourneur), pasture for cows and other, or put them, sell them, after award, banks, and the loop is buckled.After that, one wonders, why there are so many suicide of farmers (you know, the guy that you see hanging from a beam in the barn)

Time that you will act like this, it is to say, based on the opinion of a single person, or a group of people, things will not arrange.I am convinced that had been one referendum, or other,If had been asked to all the world, the project was taken in its entirety, and the other farmers, would have certainly found a parcel of land to troubleshoot a for them, because unfortunately and fortunately, this, can happen to all the world

I realize, that there are too many thing we do not want, shows us why?

When an audit of the ECB

When an audit of the FED

Some MEPs had pressures, why private U.S. banks are against an audit, if really all is clear, why a blue fear audits, otherwise, I think that tax practices will be removed to some, playing with the money of others

« Why is there an illegitimate debt in Europe and in… – ESU 2014 . PDFs to download

The debt illegal is it induced

« illegitimate « interest on a portion of its debt. … In Greece also,……

The FN requested an audit of the reserves and the repatriation of the gold from…

The FN calls an audit of the reserves and the repatriation of gold from the Bank of France

TRACK: Germany, Central Bank, Bank of England, Bank of France, ECB, Canada, Gold, De Gaulle, debt, Dollar, USA, France, Good Delivery, Gold, London, l’Or De La France, Nicolas Sarkozy, Netherlands, Gold Reserves, Switzerland, gold sales, gold sales

Warning

Topic: gold, silver and currency

Three days before the referendum in Switzerland to constrain the Bank Central Switzerland to hold its 20% of its reserves in gold and store its reserves on the territory of Switzerland[i][i], a few days after the announcement by the Central Bank of the Netherlands that it had repatriated 122 tons of gold in New York and at the point where the pressure is highest in Germany so the Central Bank repatriates its gold reserves stored outside Germany[ii] the national gold debate has just been introduced in the french political landscape.

Ms. Marine Le Pen, President of the National Front, sent Monday morning a letter to the Bank of France to demand an audit of the France gold reserves and repatriation to France’s stocks of gold owned by the Bank of France which would be stored abroad. She asks this audit, according to the terms of this letter (excerpt):

« – a complete inventory of the quantities of physical gold posted currently at 2435 tonnes as well as their quality (serial number, purity, ‘Good Delivery’ bars…), directed by an independent french body (to be defined). This inventory under control of bailiff shall indicate the country in which the gold reserves are stored, in France or abroad.

-A census of all financial agreement official or secret to banks and private companies, or bilateral loan between the France and national or international institutions having pledged the France gold to ensure the rescue of the euro. In this case, the comprehensive audit shall contain the conditions of contracts of engagement or loans. »

Mrs Le Pen also mentions gold sales decided in 2004 by the France as follows (excerpt):

« Whereas in fact, the already independent bank of France, conducted under the CBGA 2 agreement, gold sales decided in 2004 by Nicolas Sarkozy, then Minister of economy and Finance of the Raffarin Government.

The official goal was more actively manage the exchange reserves of the State to generate 100 million euros in additional tax revenues by 2005. N. Sarkozy also stated that the gold sales would be used « to finance investments that prepare the future, either to reduce the debt, but in no case to finance operating expenses. ».

Over the period 2004-2012, about 614,6 tons of gold allegedly sold by the France while at the same time the other central banks of the Eurosystem the ECB committed themselves to limit their gold sales.

When the Court of Auditors is pin
◦Pierre moscovici,
◦Court of Auditors,
◦Jacques Chirac,
◦François Hollande

Impeccable, the Court of Auditors? Not really, said Bruno Botella, editor-in-Chief of the monthly public actors. In the book and whether it was investigating the Court of Auditors? (Editions of the Moment), to be issued Thursday, the journalist reveals the derivatives of this institution so quick to slap on the wrist from the Government, elected officials or authorities.

> > read also, interview with Bruno Botella: ‘It is time to reform the Court of Auditors’

It houses a lot of reclassified…

If number of judges of the Court of Auditors incorporate this institution at the end of their studies at ENA, others discover on the later, thanks to the « exterior round. Clearly, the president of the Republic may decide to send that he wants to settle at Palais Cambon. The Court proves so « a comfortable refuge policies eager to turn the page or pushed out by voters », wrote Botella. Among these ‘magistrates’ appointed by presidential votes, found Henri Guaino , or Jean de Gaulle, grandson of the General. The latter had agreed not to stand in the legislative elections of 2007 subject to obtaining this appointment. The UMP wanted to let the place to Arno Klarsfeld, who will be finally beaten by the left in the 12th arrondissement.

… And a few stashed

As Pierre Moscovici, which ‘crawls an appalling reputation’ to the Court. It integrates it in 1984 out of ENA, but spends much more time to campaign for the PS to look into public accounts. Which does not prevent it to be quickly « promoted counsel. He left then the rue Cambon to multiply functions – cabinet room, MEP, etc – until 2002 where, beaten in the legislative elections, it has choice to return to the Court, where he was again promoted, this time conseiller Maître… Among the famous Palais Cambon hideout, there are also Jacques Chirac, who officially left the Court at age 61 while he has worked only a few months in all its life, or François Holland, which is always advise legal Secretary at the Court ‘ detachment ‘… « Allowing it to continue to benefit from rights to the advancement and retirement », says Botella.

It is not spared by the conflict of interest…

June 30, 2011, Bernadette Malgorn, shock ex-prefete named to the Court by Sarkozy in 2009, is required to rule on a report of the Palais Cambon on security conducted between 2002 and 2010. That is, at the time when Sarkozy was Minister of the Interior… The text is rather critical and Malgorn disputed several points in the report. In 2011 still, Jean Picq, magistrate of the rue Cambon and Professor at Sciences Po, warns Richard Descoings, late Director of the school, an imminent control of the Court of accounts… « 26% of judges are not in the service of the Court but occupy other functions in the administration and within companies. This situation can create conflicts of interest, especially at the time of the return of these judges, »considered an audit carried out in 2012.

The accuracy of Didier Migaud, first president of the Court of Auditors: « Regarding the »conflict of interest »alleged, it should be noted that the mobility of senior officials has an interest: acquired operational experience nourishes the collegiality and enriches the analysis of the Court.  » These trips are so useful, because they avoid the syndrome of the « ivory tower ». The Court is also organized to prevent any potential conflict of interests: College procedures and its ethical rules, which require appropriate to refrain from participating in the deliberations, are applied with rigour. They were for the case mentioned. With regard to Sciences Po, is on the occasion of a management control raised by the Court of Auditors that failure and significant gaps have been found, then made public by the end of 2012 Court ».

… Or buried files

The story had been much ink. In 1978, the Court investigates the outbreak of the Elf-Aquitaine research expenses, then public group, and updates the scandal of ‘ had sniffers, these devices meant to detect oil slicks « , recalls Botella. But « at the request of the giscardien power’, the folder does not come out. In 1983, the Canard enchaîné revealed the scam and the Court is dragged in the mud. Its former president Bernard Beck is « shown the finger for destroying the reports in its possession before leaving the rue Cambon, in 1982 ».

Didier Migaud accuracy: Unlike « that says this article, the book describes in fact no »drift ». If beyond the introduction, which actually contains this word, we note that there is no State of no derivative of the institution subsequently. The story reported, already known, date of… 1983! In any case, the book concludes thus: « the Court of Auditors has an essential role to play and (…) « has a size advantage (…): the credibility ». I cannot better and so I invite everyone to read it… to the end! »

To investigate in-depth the Netanyahu House?

The Attorney general shall convene a summit meeting to examine allegations of financial misconduct

The Attorney general Yehuda Weinstein (Credit: Miriam Alster/Flash90)

The Attorney general Yehuda Weinstein convened for Thursday a meeting with senior officials of the public prosecutor to examine allegations of financial malfeasance involving Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and his wife Sara, published last week State Comptroller’s report and the testimony of an ex-intendant who worked with the couple at the residence of the Prime Minister.

The expenditure report published by the State Comptroller’s Yosef Shapira detailing spending lavishly of Netanyahu and his wife at their official in Jerusalem as well as residence in their home in Caesarea and was considering possible criminal wrongdoing on the part of the spouses.

According to Haaretz, the Parquet should recommend that Weinstein widen the investigation into the allegations and summoned officials of the official residence for questioning.

The police said that the wife of Netanyahu may also be called for questioning.

The Attorney general could recommend a police investigation into the allegations.

The timing of such a decision is important politically because the general elections will be held

Netanyahu invited to Congress… Without the agreement of Obama !

Posted the: January 21, 2015

The President of the House of representatives, John Boehner, invited Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu Wednesday to participate in a joint session of Congress, February 11 on the threat posed by the Iran and Islam.

« In these times of challenge, I ask the Prime Minister to talk to the Congress of the serious threats that represent radical islam and Iran face our security and our way of life, » Boehner said in a statement.

Boehner said in this statement that Mr. Netanyahu « is a great friend of our country, and this invitation carries our unwavering commitment to the security and the well-being of its people. In these times of challenge, I ask the Prime Minister to talk to the Congress on these threats. The Americans and the Israelis have always been together to defend the ideals shared – and we must still be together. »

An Israeli official said Netanyahu, whose relationship with the president Barack Obama has often been tense, is studying the possibility to meet Obama when he came.

The White House, says his side have not yet exchanged with Netanyahu on this possible visit. « Generally, when a foreign leader wants to apply to the Congress, there are consultations upstream with the White House and the State Department. »

For Boehner, « Congress can take this decision on its own initiative… ». »

A strike prevents France 3 Alsace to broadcast his live journal why; you

To remove, one for now, not content to be wheat, on our backs, they want you to be less so that it can win more , it’s not SARKO, which disai t, worked to gain more, she is really too good!

For more than a month, the broadcast of the evening of France 3 Alsace is disrupted by video technicians strike. The movement is amplified preventing live streaming, 19 h log is saved in the afternoon.

The conflict focuses on the reorganization by the management of the resources allocated to the Alsace morning show: a Director position has been removed, a cost-saving measure already in force in the other regional centres of France 3.

Thursday, a party of journalists, editors, sound technicians, archivists, graphic and personal administrative took the pen to denounce in an open letter the degradation of working conditions and the lack of dialogue between strikers and management:

« At France 3 Alsace we are registered news. It no longer exists from 15 hours. Our credibility either. But in what channel inflicts on this viewers, with the ethics that entails? Now viewers or even angry require explanations. Those who are on the ground living, every day. But how to respond specifically to their grievances without knowing we same? They do absolutely nothing. Nor we. »

These employees of France 3 Alsace, some 60 people including a majority of journalists, demanding « a national mediation » for this folder progress and the dissemination of the evening newspaper to online resume.

The economic collapse is inevitable, here’s why…Greek debt, and that of the France, it’s the cat pee compare to that of states.

America is approaching quickly catastrophic economic collapse. Before dismiss you this as hype or paranoia, take a few minutes to examine the facts described on this page. The numbers don’t lie.

At this point, the dollar crash is inevitable… far from exaggeration, it is a mathematical certainty. Also pushing as it may seem, it is in your own interest to learn how the situation is.

According to the talking heads of mainstream press , the economy is slowly recovering and is the crisis financial, but behind us, but we have to check a reality.

It is time to stop being naive and start to be more discerning. Instead of more than false hopes, we must also bitter truth as it sounds… and the truth is, our local municipalities, our States of our federal Government, we are knocked down… the truth is that we cannot the repayment of our debt without going into debt even more… the truth is the 2008 housing crash was just a glimpse of what is to come.

America is drowning in debt. Now, the Government’s liabilities are growing at an exponential rate. Our public debt is a vicious circle.

To our detriment, that our Government continues to claim that we can borrow our way out of debt and only a handful of our politicians are willing to admit that our nation is now in bankruptcy.

Against rhetoric coming out of Washington, no tax increase or the budget cut us out of this mess. The kind of measures that would really make significant changes to curb the financial collapse are considered to be too severe to be even considered.

Examine the evidence described below, connect the dots and think for yourself.

« All truth passes through three stages.
First, it is ridiculed.
Second, it is violently opposed.
Thirdly, it is accepted as self.  »

-Arthur Schopenhauer

The « national debt » even mean?

We’ll cover the basics first… When the Government cannot cover its expenses using revenues collected from companies and the taxes and other costs that it imposes, it goes into debt. The American government debt is the sum of all outstanding debt owed by the federal Government. It includes the Government of borrowed money, plus interest, it must pay this debt.

We will also clarify the difference between the debt and the deficit. The deficit is the deficit, we have each year. If you take $100 billion and $130 billion, you get a $30 billion deficit. Now at the end of this year, you gotta do something with this $30 billion that you must, if you move your deficit in the long term – which is the national debt.

Of course, like any other debt, national debt has repaid to the holders. Of course, having a small debt is fine as long as it is manageable. However, if a country borrows too much it can drown in its debt, as did the Greece.

So what is our situation? Numbers do not lie, so let’s compare our debt and deficit in 1974 just to have an idea of our path and pace (later we will study graphic national debt covering 1940-2011).

In 1974 (lost profits annual) deficit is $4 billion, and total debt was $484 billion. It had taken us 200 years since the beginning of the Republic until 1974 to create this debt of $484 billion.

However, since 1974, our deficit is $4 billion to a shocking $1.33 trillion… stop and think about this for a second… This means that our budgetary shortfall in annual current is about triple the size of the total debt of the United States in 1974. Our national debt in 1974 was $484 billion… approaching one without previous $16 trillion!

How is this possible? How can you pass by the world war, World War II, Korea war, Vietnam war – were only $484 billion of debt and then skyrocket to 16 trillion in so little time? The answer to this question is related to a key event in 1971 that we will go in a moment… for now, we’ll stick with the national debt, in order to understand why it is thus more durable.

In a letter addressed to Thomas Jefferson, 1787

« All the perplexities, confusion and distress in America arises, not from defects in the Constitution or Confederation, no lack of honor or virtue, so much from ignorance pure and simple of the nature of coin, credit and traffic.  »

: John Adams, founding father

16 trillion dollars, so what?

$ 16 trillion, is certainly a lot of money, but most people do usually treat as zeros in their lives. It is difficult to really appreciate this almost unfathomable sum and the disastrous consequences it represents for us. But to understand how deep of a hole is the Government is in, we must grasp the enormity of this dollar amount.

So what is 1 trillion? Here are some useful illustrations.

Imagine that you have decided to count up to 1 million aloud. How much time do you think it would take you at a pace of one number per second? If you do not stop, it would take about 12 days. Now, how much time would it take you to count to 1 trillion?… The answer?… 32 000 YEARS!

Here is another illustration.

If you were alive when Christ was born, and you’ve spent $ 1 million every day from this point, you still did would have not spent $ 1 trillion now.

The last… If you had 1.00000000001 trillion of invoices and you saved their all from beginning to end. Your Silver Ribbon will become as long you would be actually able to wrap them around the planet Earth more than 380 times!… But, this sum of money would be not yet enough to repay the national debt US.

Are you still the image?

On the right is an illustration of our federal debt that could help you have a better idea visually. You can click on this image to see a larger size.

Keep in mind that you’re watching are pallets of $100 bills, stacked one on the other. To give you an idea of the size and the height of these palettes, in the centre stands the Statue of liberty, at the right scale compared with silver towers. Money that surround and eclipsing the Stature of freedom, taken together constitutes 16,394 trillion. This is our current debt that we have programmed to hit in September of 2012’s ceiling.

It is interesting to note that when we reached this ceiling this year of the debt, our Government will be once more climb to the ceiling to allow the debt to grow. Now ask yourself: what is the point of a good furniture ceiling? A mobile ceiling is an oxymoron. If you can move your debt limit on application, why pretend that you have a limit of debt in the first place?

« I see in the near future a crisis approaching that demobilized me and makes me tremble for the safety of my country. » « Companies have been inducted, will follow an era of corruption and the power of money of the country endeavour to prolong its reign by working on the prejudices of the people until the wealth is aggregated in a few hands and destroyed the Republic ».

-Abraham Lincoln, 16th President of the United States of America

Statistics, that the Government would rather you didn’t know

Now that you have a bit of an idea of what size 1 trillion is, consider the table to the right (U.S. debt from 1940 to 2011 in trillions of dollars) and look at the breathtaking statistics below:

The U.S. Government spent more than 454 billion dollars only on interest on the national debt in fiscal 2011.
•In 2011, the Government borrowed $41 000 every second.
•Currently, the burden of the Government grows by $10 million per each minute that passes
•Just during the Obama administration, the U.S. Government has accumulated more debt as it did between the time where George Washington took office at a time that Bill Clinton took office.
•Currently the US monetary base is sitting somewhere about $ 2.7 trillion. So if you went out and picked up paper money it would only make a small dent in our national debt. But subsequently, no there is no money for anyone to use.
•The U.S. Government is responsible for more than one third of all public debt on the entire planet.
•Mandatory federal spending has exceeded the total of all federal revenues for the first time in fiscal 2011. That was not supposed to happen until 50 years from now.
•If the American Government has been forced to use GAAP accounting principles (as all listed companies must), the budget deficit of the United States Government would be somewhere in the neighborhood of $4 trillion to $5 trillion each year.
•The American government debt is now more than 5 000 times greater than it was when the federal reserve was created in 1913.

If all goes well at this point, you begin to understand how our debt is great and how fast it grows. Surprisingly, major commitments of our Government even does not appear here, so this is just the visible part of the iceberg.

Another 54 trillion excluded the national debt figures

The short video on the left was broadcast by CNN in 2007 which featured the head of Government accountant David Walker.

According to David Walker, who served as United States comptroller general in the Government Accountability Office from 1998 to 2008, the burden of the US Government is close to $ 70 trillion.

This is because the 16 trillion national debt does not take account of obligations such as social security, Medicare, an employee of public pension plans and other liabilities which the Government is already committed to.

These commitments are ticking time bombs, primed to explode with each new wave of retirement of baby boomers. In addition to this, medical costs continue to increase in all areas of expenditure of health insurance through the roof of the conduct.

Don’t forget that at the time, that this video was aired our national debt was ‘only’ about 9 trillion $ and it is now close to 16 trillion. The catastrophic economic problems provided by the Chief Accountant of our Government play themselves this time.

What’s most discouraging is that David Walker was forced to accept that reprimand in Washington of unsustainable debt was a wasted effort. His warnings of the imminent financial collapse fell on the deaf ears because both administrations has simply ignored it. In desperation, Mr Walker left his job as head of the federal Government to travel around the country to find ways to deliver its message directly to the public.

Father of the Constitution and the Bill of Rights, James Madison is quoted saying:

« Records of the story that the money changers have used all forms of abuse, intrigue, deceit, and violent means possible maintain their control over Governments by controlling money and its issuance. »

-James Madison, 4th president of the United States of America and founding father

How are we so much debt?

To see all events that lead us to this mess would take an article separate, but here is a quick summary.

In 1913 Congress passed the « law of the federal reserve, » renounce the power to create and control of the money the federal reserve Corporation, a private company owned and controlled by bankers. Over time, more and more legislation was adopted to expand the functions of the federal reserve. The Fed (abbreviation of the federal reserve) has been given to two extremely critical powers: the ability to buy U.S. Treasury securities and manipulate interest rates. Manipulation of interest rates and quantitative acceleration (pumping money into the economy) of the Fed, are the two driving forces behind the cycles of expansion and slowdown and economic bubbles.

The Fed was supposed to be the guardian of the American currency, in fact, that it turned out to be a debt and bubble machine, ran for the benefit of greedy bankers.

Our founding fathers understood the danger of putting the power to control the currency of a nation in the hands of a few individuals in the form of a monopolistic Central Bank and were fiercely opposed to such a system.

In 1944, as World War II drew closer in the end, the representatives of 44 allied nations gathered at Brenton Woods, New Hampshire, where the dollar (backed by gold at $ 35 per ounce) has been accepted as a global reserve currency.

America got the benefits without precedent as the transmitter of the dollar. However, the gold standard limited federal reserve printing money if it had no gold for backup new currency. Even though this guaranteed the stability of the dollar and a strong economy, these restrictions would not be tolerated by the Fed for a long time.

In 1971, under President Nixon, US away a convertible currency system to gold for a paper debt fiat monetary system that has allowed the federal reserve to print $ out of the air.

This has opened the door to move without restriction and borrowing. Once us away a ‘gold standard’ to a ‘debt-money system’ it was only a matter of time before transformed America the biggest creditor of the larger world debtor of the world.

If you look at the table of the national debt by scrolling to the top, you can see a direct parallel between the explosion of debt and Americans to transition to a 1971 fiat currency. Once the Fed could create dollars from nothing, it took a few years for the debt to get an exponential climb rate.

Now on the ability of the surface, Federal Reserve to print money without restriction could his great since you can simply create the new currency on demand… but it carries with it two very serious consequences. Consequences we pay for now.

The first consequence is inflation. Whenever the Fed publishes new dollars, it increases the money supply, which in turn decreases the value of the rest of the money already in circulation. Basically, this means that the more money are printed, the less they are worth. When inflation rises, so do the price and the cost of living. Inflation also encourages spending and debt and discourages the formation of savings and investment. Long term monetary inflation destroys the richness of the bourgeoisie and the economy wrecks. In addition, the dollar has lost 95% of its value since the federal reserve in 1913.

The second consequence is that we (the people) go into debt whenever new money is created. When the Government needs extra money, beyond what it collects in taxes, it emits good U.S. of the treasure, which is paid ious guaranteed by the Government. These obligations are exchanged with the federal reserve for currency. This process is called « monetization of debt », so system « currency debt ». The federal reserve collects interest and taxpayers collect debt. Bankers thrive and people forced into slavery.

Addition to debase the dollar and forcing America into debt, the Fed manipulates the interest rate of the substitution of market self-regulation. These manipulations create bubbles, causing catastrophic consequences for the economy and the average American.

President Andrew Jackson refused to renew the (grant of monopoly) Charter of the Second Bank of the United States. In 1836, Jackson told the bankers trying to persuade him to renew their Charter (so that they could continue their harmful monopoly):

« You are a den of vipers. I’ll put you in rout and by the Eternal God, I will put you in diverted. If people understood the injustice rank of our money and banking system, there would be a revolution before morning. »

-Andrew Jackson, seventh president of the United States of America

How the U.S. Government will finance 70 trillion in liabilities?

If you’ve been paying attention so far, you should be able to guess correctly… by borrowing. The U.S. Government plans to finance 70 trillion in bonds by selling securities of Treasury (interest bearing debt recognition) America putting into even more debt.

Given that our public debt explodes and our annual deficit continues to grow each year, we are forced to admit evidence: our Government is unable to pay its debt without taking more debt.

It is by definition, a chain of Ponzi schemes. To keep the Ponzi scheme going you must have a rate constant and growing investor. If the flow stops or slows down again, everything starts to crumble. That is why the Government must permanently increase the ceiling of the official debt.

All chains of Ponzi, eventually collapse, and our debt-currency system has the same fatal flaw by design.

The video left aired on CNBC, May 24, 2012:

Peter Schiff, CEO of Euro Pacific Capital, who not only famous predicted the housing bubble of 2008, but also predicted specific banks that would go as, as well as the Government’s response the exact to the 2008 crisis, makes the following statements about the US Treasury bills (abbreviation of titles of US Treasury… once again they are interest bearing certificate of indebtedness of the Government must sell to pay obligations):

« There is no safety in U.S. Treasury bills. When interest rates rise, we default on Treasury bills. We cannot pay a rate of interest of the market and even less to retire the principal. Most of the treasures, which are purchased have a very short deadline. We have 5 or 6 billion coming due next year, we are unable to pay this back. We rely on our loan creditors to return us the money to repay debt. It is a chain of Ponzi schemes.

It is the same situation as I said the Greece was in. They had no problem to sell their bonds when rates are low. But people figured out minute that the Greeks could not repay the debt, they no longer wanted to buy. The same thing will happen. You have a false perception of the safety of the Treasury Board on the market. It is not safe at all. It is a trap. And it is defined by the central banks, the Fed is the biggest buyer, they buy like 90% of long-term Treasury bills… »

How long we keep borrowing?

Some economists like to imagine that we can just grow our debt continuously, because we have the ability to print dollars off the air. These « experts » claim that the Treasury bills market is stronger than ever and we can just keep borrowing ever. What are the same ‘experts’ who insisted that real estate prices will continue to grow perpetually, right up to the crash of 2008. They do argue, just raise the debt ceiling and continue to grow more and more debt.

But even if we can increase our debt ceiling every time, there’s always a limit of natural debt that we cannot cross. The idea that our Government can continue to grow our debt without end is absurd.

Firstly, it is based on a stupid assumption that wants to lend us money that they know that we can not refund the rest of the world. Secondly, it ignores a mathematical consequence: exponential growth due to interest only.

We were able to get away with so many things to this borrowing because the dollar is the global reserve currency, but the privilege has its limits. It is also a privilege that we will lose because we have been shamelessly abused it.

The federal reserve held the artificially low interest, to help the Government to maintain the loan. Of course, this is no favor on part of the Fed, because the end result is the enslavement of the debt. Because no matter what the Government needs is inherited by the people, it is the people who get screwed in the end. If the interest was allowed to return to the market rates, it would be useful to prevent the Government from borrowing beyond its means.

However, at that point our lenders are aware that our debt has long passed to a bearable level. If you have already applied for a loan, you must be familiar with this universal rule: when the borrower is too indebted, the loan becomes high risk and if the lender requires a greater interest to the worthy of the risk reward. With every day which passes, U.S. plunges into a deep pit of debt, which makes loans in the USA (by buying Treasury securities) a more risky investment.

To make things worse, the Fed is devaluing the dollar at a rate increasing bailouts issuing, plans of stimulus, quantitative easing, etc…, and our lenders are the realization of this too. This means that to our creditors are ready to us now, dollars are worth less when they retrieve them.

For these two reasons, the titles of the Treasury (Government, recognition of debt) are now at high risk and low-yield investments. What was once considered the safest investment is now a Ponzi scheme at the time of the collapse.

Who will bail out America when it is short of lenders?

Our pool of willing lenders began to shrink as our creditors are waking up to the fact that the Treasury bills is now a high risk and low-yield investment. To compensate for this, the Fed is obliged to buy long-term Treasury to artificially stimulate demand, to keep to the top of the smoke screen. Of course this only inflated bubble of binding US still more.

When the pool of loans lenders dries, the regime reaches its end and the last bubble will explode. Without the lenders, the US Government has only two terrible choices: default on debt or hyper-gonfler the dollar.

Option 1 is by default on all of the debt, essentially declaring bankruptcy to renegotiate all of its obligations. This would create a financial shock as the dollar collapses and loses its status as reserve currency. This would lead to a strong increase in the cost of almost everything, more dollars would be needed to pay for imports, where a catastrophic economic impact for all Americans. The Government is forced to cut spending dramatically. A wide range of government payments will have to be stopped, including military wages, social security and Medicare payments, unemployment benefits, tax refunds, etc. Companies would be crushed by a U.S. consumer who would have no more power purchase. In addition, credit would dry up virtually from one day to the next, that would force a countless number of companies to close their doors. Unemployment in the country to dope at the obscene levels. Interest rates would rise significantly forcing millions of families with adjustable mortgages to go into foreclosures.

Option two is to have the Federal Reserve create trillion on trillions of dollars out of the air. This creates an illusion that the debt is repaid, but in reality dollars issued to pay the debt would become more more useless, turning rapid inflation in hyperinflation. In fact, this would create a worst-case scenario then the first option much as hyperinflation will be even more economically destructive for the average American. Prices would soar to unimaginable levels, unemployment is expected to soar. The average American would be forced to work overtime just to put food on the table, it is if he or she has the chance to still have a job.

It is worth noting that it is highly unlikely that the U.S. will choose by default (option 1). Even if hyperinflation is by far the most destructive to the American people in the long term, the Government will probably try to print its path.

Anyway the economy will collapse. On the economic front, the first option would feel like a heart attack and the second option as a terminal cancer.

The effect of each scenario would be unprecedented. It would not be the end of the world, but you can expect social unrest, demonstrations, riots, arson, etc. Provide disturbances on all levels. Basic utility failures and degradation of the infrastructure. Violent crime rampant, especially in metropolitan areas. Optionally followed by a period long and very painful readjustment of the standard of living for most Americans.

What happens if cut us spending, raise taxes and balance the budget?

It’s amazing that even now, you the same hear old slogans thrown around politicians on all new major shows, like « economic recovery », « budget cuts » and « responsible spending. But someone out there who insists on the fact that this crisis can be fixed under our current system is lying.

The spending cuts and tax increases which speaks of Congress are absolutely meaningless compared to how quickly our debt is exploding.

Calling the cuts and taxes ‘pocket change’ would be an insult to pocket change.

No plan of rescue, recovery plan or manipulation by the federal reserve will avoid massive financial pain that is coming our way.

Can our Government do to fix the financial crisis and prevent the crash of the dollar? What should be done?

Should be the kind of measures that our Government considers too extreme to discuss yet and so there is no chance of their approval. For starters, should abolish the Federal Reserve, return to the gold standard, close military bases overseas, completely reforming the tax code, restructuring programs of payment, etc.

Unfortunately, proposing such changes, it is the best way to lose your political financing, become the laughingstock of Washington and be ignored or ridiculed by the mainstream media. Talk to Ron Paul.

Our Congress knows very well that the fighting against the system commits suicide policy. And therefore no significant changes that would help to mitigate the impact of the accident coming is approved.

According to the Oval Office and the Congress is concerned, postponing the crash by issuing rescue plans and recovery is a politically more favourable approach, even if this ensures an even greater disaster at the end.

The bottom line is this: we are on a path to an inevitable dollar crash. Those who run our monetary system and hold the keys of our economy are in fact part of the problem instead of the solution. Those in power that can make the necessary changes desperately, dare not.

Rather than risk their careers, they will continue to distribute shamelessly our hard earned money among their friends to Wall Street. The hand full of our honest politicians who are actually brave enough to defend people are cleared by the system.

At this point, we are on a run away train without brakes, so you prepare yourself better. The good news is, there is still time to prepare you for what happens before. Most people will be completely prepared when it all comes crashing down.

Are not part of this group.

How should I prepare for the next crisis?

If you are broke or rich, that you live in an apartment or a House, no matter what your current situation, there are specific things you can do to prepare for the crash of the dollar which impede.

The next section, we publish will focus on action plan step by step you can take to minimize the impact of the financial crisis on you and your family. It will include practical actions, but critical, that you should take to protect your loved one from the chaos that ensued, as well as financial advice to save some savings, you might have.

To be notified when we publish the article on « How to prepare for the next crisis » Please subscribe to our list of notification on the right. We hate spam as well as you do, then we don’t sell or share your email or never send spam, your info is kept absolutely private and secure.

Finally, please share it with your family and friends and co-workers. To warn those that you care by sending them the link to this page. We must awaken our people from their entertainment induced comas.

We are one
Langue source

comme quoi, on nous raconte ,vraiment des conneries ,ce que ,j’aime particulièrement ,c’est le recrutement des soldats irakiens ,qui pour la plupart viennent de prison., mais ,lisait l’article très instructif

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Hello all;

Ron Paul is a member of the US Congress, where it is 14 ° District of Texas, and has a reputation for being one of the main defender of freedoms. It is counsel in Washington a govern limited, a very low tax, free markets, and a return to sound monetary practices based on a secured currency on a real asset. He was candidate for the US presidential election of 2008 (http://www.ronpaul.org/)

If the Fed has nothing to hide, it has nothing to fear

Since the creation of the Federal Reserve in 1913 the dollar has lost more than 97% of its purchasing power, the U.S. economy has suffered a long series of heavy recessions and depressions generated by the Fed, and the Government has taken a dangerous extent thanks to the Fed debt monetization policies. And yet, the Federal Reserve continues to operate under a shroud of privacy created by Congress.

It is not surprising that 75% of the American public supports the requests for an audit of the Federal Reserve.

The new leaders of the Senate have promised to hold a vote this year in respect of the audit of the Fed, but despite the undeniable support of the public, the passage of this Act is in no way assured.

The reason why its passage could be difficult is that the 25% of Americans who oppose represent some of the most powerful political interests of the country. These interests are working behind the scenes to kill the bird in the egg or substitute a compromise without any value. This compromise could offer us limited transparency, but it would nevertheless prevent Americans learn the truth about the monetary policies of the Fed.

According to some opponents of the Bill, an audit would compromise the independence of the Fed. Those who see things thus are unable to point the finger any line in the text that gives Congress a new authority on the monetary policies of the Fed. More importantly, the idea that the Federal Reserve is independent of any political consideration is absurd. Economists often refers to economic cycles, which are nothing else than the adjustment of its policies by the Fed to help or put to lot of politicians. The former Governor of the Federal Reserve, Arthur Burns, exposed the truth behind the propaganda which includes the independence of the Federal Reserve saying that if he had not known what was president, the Federal Reserve would have « lost its independence.

Perhaps the Fed opposes an audit because of which was revealed by its operations in recent years. In 2010, under Act Dodd- Frank, Congress authorized an exceptional audit of its activities following the financial crisis of 208. This audit revealed that between 2007 and 2008, the Fed has lent more than 16 trillion – more than four times the annual budget of the US – foreign central banks and influential private companies.

In 2003, former officials of the Fed, Andrew Huszar, publicly apologized to the American people for his role in « the largest plan of rescue of Wall Street of all time » – the program of QE by the Fed. Can we still doubt that the Fed acts for the benefit of the elites?

Despite the improvements made by statistics economic (manipulated by the Government), the average American does not benefit by QE the Fed programs. The abysmal failure of QE in the United States is perhaps one reason that prompted Switzerland to untie its franc to the euro following the publication of reports according to which the ECB would be poised to launch its own QE programme.

EQ is the most recent chapter of a century of failures of the Federal Reserve. Despite this dark past, defenders of the Fed continue to proclaim the benefits of the federal reserve system. If it really existed, why they still refuse to let the Americans know more about its monetary policies? Why the Fed behaves as if it had something to hide, as if she was afraid an audit?

The American people has suffered enough monetary policies of its Central Bank. It is time to audit the Fed, to make it go away

independent against the Fed audit local banks , Why are they on the other hand, if they are on the other hand, there are shenanigans, and if there are scam, conbiem, is student scheming, and depending on the importance of the scam, the person will be fined, if one realizes that the scam dating from its creation, in this case, all banks have contact, are faulty

United States: independent local banks against the audit of the Fed by Congress

February 24, 2015 ·

Local banks begin to ally for combat the ‘Audit the Fed’ Bill proposal Republican Senator Rand Paul. This proposal, which would authorize an audit of the Federal Reserve (Fed) and its monetary policy by Congress, has already forced the Fed to deploy treasures of persuasion from banks, and should cause a still more intense lobbying work as it progresses politically.

Senator Rand Paul has reintroduced this proposal of law in January while a similar law had been passed by the House of representatives last year. Its text is not only to implement a comprehensive review of the Fed, it also intends to give Congress the right to look at the policies put in place by the latter, including the ability to create large amounts of currency. Since 1978, the Fed is indeed immune from any control of its monetary policy: some politicians think that transparency is time. Others are going to ask the total abolition of the institution.

Policies against the monetary policies of the Fed; It defends its independence
Designed secretly over 100 years ago by high finance, the Federal Reserve is poorly named. It is neither federal nor a reserve. It is an independent non-governmental organization, private, consisting of an office of Governors and 12 regional banks. It emits the ex nihilo currency it then lends to interest the Government and the country’s banks. The interest on several decades, and in fact several centuries, the process that began well before its creation, amounted to several thousands of billions of dollars.

The official role of this institution is to fight inflation and encourage economic growth. But it is referred by many critics. Notably accused the Fed to not perform its functions, including by incessant game of money – very definition of inflation.

The economic crisis of 2008 gave weight to this request for transparency of the Fed and the Americans massively support Senator Rand Paul in his fight. But the banking community resists. A Reuters survey of 24 banking groups shows that four of them are firmly opposed to this audit of the Fed. five other groups say that they will react probably against the audit if it was necessary.

Several banks local ‘beyond’ oppose strongly the proposal of Senator Rand Paul audit
Janet Yellen, President of the Fed, has strongly criticized this proposed legislation, like its predecessor before it, stressing the importance of the independence of his institution.

Local banks take up the argument and also fight the draft law: this is the case of the Ohio Bankers League group, which has sent 82 members in Washington this week while the draft law is in the agenda of the Congress. An example that shows that banks of all sizes are ready to fight against a review of the policy of the Fed, which they support independence. Meanwhile the Arizona Bankers Association spokesman also said that the Fed was « unnecessary ». Same thing for the banking associations of Iowa or Alabama.

Banking groups from Texas, Tennessee, Massachusetts, Virginia and Arkansas have not yet intervened because they think that the Act has no chance in Congress, but said they were ready to fight it if it were to be passed.

Control of the Fed on the entire financial system, and thus political system
This fight could be effective, these independent banking communities being very influential in Washington: they have provided over 1.3 million in political campaigns by 2013-2014. Indeed, some think that this proposal of Rand Paul could jeopardize his chances for the 2016 presidential.

« The Fed is the most important Central Bank in the world and no one wants to call it into question, » said an anonymous remained American financier.

All this sign the power and wealth of the owners of the Fed: they are such that the Fed is able to control directly or indirectly any of the financial system. And so to compel the policy.

The Motley Fool

Fear of Buffett is the opportunity

Advertorial | By David Hanson

Dear opportunistic investor,

Admitting fear is difficult.

You can therefore imagine how shocked I had know Warren Buffett recently said a number of investors on the technology that keeps him awake during the night.

In may, The Motley Fool sent 8 of its best stock analysts to Omaha, Nebraska to attend the meeting of shareholders annual Berkshire Hathaway.CEO Warren Buffett and Vice Chairman Charlie Munger answered questions for nearly 6 hours.

Catches were: participants were not allowed to save everything. No sound. No video.

Our team of analysts wrote each pronounced Word Buffett and Munger. More than 16 000 words. But only two words were out of me that I have read the transcript of the event: ‘real threat ‘.

This is how Buffett replied when asked about this new market which should already be more than $2 trillion in the United States alone. Google has already put some of its best engineers behind the technology powering this trend.

The amazing thing is, while Buffett may be nervous that the rest of us can invest in this new industry before the old money realizes what hit them.

KPMG recommends that we are « on the cusp of the revolutionary change » come much « earlier than you think. »

Even a professor from MIT legendary should renounce its position that the technology was « beyond the capacity of the computer. » (He recently confessed to the Wall Street Journal that he is now a believer and wonder « how quickly this technology caught on. »)

Think how many incredible technologies that you have watched soar to new heights, while you launch yourself into thinking, « I knew this technology before everyone talks about, but I sat on my hands. »

Do not let this happen again. This time, it should be your family saying, ‘ I can’t believe you know and invested in this technology therefore from the outset.  »

That is why I hope that you take a few minutes to access exclusive research, our team of analysts has implemented on this sector and one of the stocks positioned to take advantage of this major change.

FRAUD

Has bank customer you already sentenced for money laundering or failure in the monitoring of the risks it takes in the markets? She already paid fines or compensation in France, the United States and Germany? We counted the penalties and sanctions that since the 2008 crisis, hit fourteen major banks, including six major french institutions: BNP, Société Générale, Crédit agricole, BPCE, Crédit mutuel and Banque postale. An interactive table allows you to investigate their criminal records.

Since the financial crisis of 2008, the banking scandals multiply. And all kinds. There are those directly related to the commercialization of toxic financial products that led to the crisis of the subripmes. There are rate manipulation, fraud or faults in the « risk management ». Not to mention tax evasion or laundering money from drugs, terrorism or dictatorial regimes. The catalogue of banking abuses is almost as varied as that of the complex financial products they sell to their customers!

The severity of these financial crimes are obviously not of the same nature. Fines or penalties which must pay banks differ accordingly. JP Morgan thus paid an overall fine of EUR 683 million in September 2013 to the American and British authorities for having allowed a London trader play with $ 6 billion. HSBC, Credit Switzerland and UBS collect fines for tax evasion – helping wealthy taxpayers to escape the tax authorities – in the United States, Germany or France. These fraudulent practices go to HSBC, up to the laundering of dirty money from Mexican drug cartels: to stop prosecution in the United States, the British Bank performs in 2012 a fine of 1.9 billion dollars (1.48 billion euros) [1].

Money laundering, drugs, terrorism, tax evasion…

Basta! is interested in fourteen major banks, including six major banking groups french – BNP, Société Générale (and its subsidiary, the Credit du Nord), Crédit agricole (including LCL), BPCE (Banque populaire – Caisse d’Epargne, including Natixis), Crédit mutuel (including the CIC) and the Postal Bank. We identified the financial sanctions that they have had to pay between 2009 and 2014, and possible fines that threaten when current procedures will come to an end. In total, these 14 banks spent nearly 60 billion euros in penalties in five years! And the French banks are not outdone.

How to use the table:
– « Flying over » a line, you make appear underneath the description of the case, the logo of the Bank and the sources of the information.
– By clicking on the type of offence, you go to a classification according to the offence. We have grouped them into eight major families: bleach / evasion / diversion; Insider trading; Illegal agreement; Faults in the management of risk; unequal access; Manipulation of rates / prices; Sale of toxic financial products; Violation of embargoes.
– By clicking on the amount, you go to a ranking in descending or ascending order. The amount indicated is generally fine or compensation paid, the possible sanction if the case is in progress (the nature of the sanction is specified in the description). The fines paid to the United States in dollars were converted into euros in 2014, which can create a margin of error associated with the evolution of the euro/dollar parity based on years.
– By clicking on the date, you will find the sanctions by year (2008-2014). The reference to « in progress » reports a case which is not complete. The amount of the penalty is thus estimated.
– Finally, you can classify data according to the country where was pronounced the sanction: Germany, Europe (European Commission), United States, United States / Switzerland / United Kingdom (when sanctions common to several countries) and France.

The first French Bank, BNP-Paribas, is one of the three banks of our panel to having to pay higher fines, behind the US banks JP Morgan and Bank of America: 6.64 billion euros in total, equivalent to net income that BNP has realized in 2012. This is mainly due to the record fine which it was fined in the United States for having achieved between 2004 and 2009, payments in dollars in countries under U.S. embargo – Cuba, the Iran and Sudan [2]. Nearly three quarters transactions incriminated by the Department of justice relate to exchanges made in 2006 and 2007 with the Sudanese regime [3], North American target for support to terrorism and violations of human rights, in particular crimes against humanity and war crimes committed in Darfur [4].

More near the France, BNP is referred by a judicial investigation for money laundering in one of its subsidiaries monegasques, the case of the ‘African washing machine. November 12, 2013, the Sherpa association complaint against the BNP Paribas Wealth Management Monaco, installed in the Principality. The association is based on an internal report of the Inspectorate General of BNP dated October 25, 2011. The counts are consistent: aggravated fraud committed band organized, concealment of fraud, concealment of tax fraud and aggravated laundering committed in organized band of proceeds of criminal offences. The Attorney general of Monaco, Jean-Pierre Dréno, opens in February 2014 a judicial investigation against X for laundering, concealment of money laundering and omissions of reports of suspicious transactions. BNP is also attacked in France for having sold to thousands of customers of savings products very risky (‘BNP secured Jet 3’ or « Stat Immo »). Nearly 70 million euros of compensation are at stake.

By Jérôme Kerviel « London whaling.

Société Générale has also several pans to his credit, France and the United States. The most emblematic case obviously the case of trader Jérôme Kerviel. January 20, 2008, Société Générale executives realize that one of their traders took positions risky markets estimated at 50 billion euros. That is 1.5 times the own funds of the Bank! Positions that expose the Bank to huge losses, while the subprime crisis is looming. The direction of the Société Générale will « undo » – resell on the markets – emergency. The loss amounted to 4.9 billion euros.

The Bank accused the trader of being solely responsible for. Jérôme Kerviel was sentenced in 2010 to five years in prison including three farms. His obligation to repay the 4.9 billion euros to the Bank is however annulled by the Court of cassation in March 2014. The magistrates are reminiscent of « the existence of faults committed by Société Générale, having contributed to development of the fraud and its financial consequences ». A new complaint of Jérôme Kerviel against his former employer, for forgery, use of fake and scam in the judgment, a judicial investigation was opened in the summer 2014 against the Bank. Société Générale was, for the moment, fined a blame of the Banking Commission, and a fine of EUR 4 million in July 2008. Far from $ 920 million paid by JP Morgan for a similar case in the City (the case of the ‘London whale’) four years later [5]. The French authorities seem much more conciliatory.

Manipulation of markets and rates

Société Générale is also questioned in one of the major recent scandals of bank handling: Libor and Euribor rates. These obscure acronyms refer to the rates on the interbank monetary market: there where banks lend money to each other. Libor is the rate of reference of the monetary market in London, the Euribor of the European interbank monetary market. Both perform a basic function: they determine a series of interest rate for a multitude of transactions, loans to consumer savings, real estate derivatives appropriation performance.

For several years, at least a dozen major international banks have lied about their rates. And have thus largely distorted to their advantage the level of references Libor and Euribor rates. Therefore, for years, millions of borrowers paid a fake interest rate. The level of the fines imposed on banking institutions involved in this widespread fraud gives an idea of its magnitude. The European Commission has distributed in December 2013, fines to a total of EUR 1.7 billion in eight international banks for their participation in the handling of the Euribor. Among them, Société Générale, required to pay a penalty of EUR 446 million [6].

Illegal agreements

Société Générale could disburse up to 626 million euros in France, Europe and the United States to settle these cases. In addition to the Kerviel case, continued to sell dubious mortgage agencies Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac that guarantee this type of loans to the United States. In France, it is charged, along with the five other big national banks, with illegal agreement on commissions that will grant the banks on cheques. The six banks may pay a total penalty of € 375 million to the authority of the competition, the fines from 24 million to Credit mutuel/CIC to 103 million euros for the agricultural/LCL Credit. The folder is now in the Court of cassation.

Compared to the fraud committed by BNP and Société Générale, other mutualistic or public, French banks are very small offenders. Farm Credit however risk a heavy fine from the European Commission if its guilt in the handling of the Euribor is recognized. « After completing its inquiry, the European Commission proposed to Credit Agricole SA a transaction that has not been accepted by the Crédit Agricole Group, which has refused to recognize his involvement in alleged manipulation », replied Jean-Paul Chifflet, its Managing Director (writing, December 12, 2014). The Brussels investigation continues.

For his part, BPCE has provisioned EUR 351 million to face lawsuits in the United States. These proceedings are related to the scammer Bernard Madoff case in which Natixis, the Bank business of the group, appears on the dock. Finally, BNP and Société Générale are also suspected to be involved in another manipulation: that of Forex (for Foreign Exchange), the financial market where the currencies are traded. More than $ 5 trillion transiting each day. Six banks, including JP Morgan, UBS and HSBC, have already been punished by heavy fines, a total of EUR 4 billion. And BNP and Société Générale have just be assigned to appear by the financial controller of the State of New York for illegal practices alleged in the market Forex (read here)…

When banks pay more fines than taxes!

Facing these increasingly expensive stick returns, banks register provisions « for legal disputes » still important in their balance sheets. Société Générale has thus set aside 700 million euros in 2013 to deal with any judicial procedure. « To take account of the evolution of a set of legal risks including the investigations and proceedings with authorities American and European », explains it [7]. The figure will be increased to 900 million in June, 2014… Agricultural credit, the provisions for disputes amounted to 457 million euros in December 2013 [8]. And 840 million euros for the Group Banque Populaire – Caisse d’Epargne (BPCE). As for BNP-Paribas, she provisioned of€ 2.7 billion end of 2013 in anticipation of future fines. Not enough, given the amount finally claimed by U.S. justice.

The major banks sometimes come to pay more in taxes and fines. In 2013, Société Générale has paid income taxes EUR 533 million, much less than what it has made provision for litigation legal [9]. About BNP Paribas, it spent 2.7 billion euros in taxes in 2013, as much as what she put aside for his troubles judicial [10]. Still worse. Swiss Bank UBS has paid 90 million euros in taxes in 2013, a mere 3% tax rate![11]. She has yet paid more than ten times this amount in 2012 to settle the charges brought against her in the Libor-Euribor [12] case.

Why so low fines in France?

Therefore, the fines seem not really dissuasive. Yet, they are very heavy to the United States. US banks, Swiss or German had to pay astronomical sums for have refourgué their customers of toxic financial products knowingly: 12.5 billion for Bank of America, 5.9 billion for Citigroup, $ 2.3 billion for Goldman Sachs, $ 1.3 billion for Deutsche Bank!

But these are mostly transactional agreements: banks agree to pay high prices to put an end to prosecutions and avoid a trial. « The transaction prevents any investigation and trial, which are in fact the opportunity to a scrutiny of the facts.» The truth remains buried, lack of public exposure of facts », regret the financial crime specialist Jean-François Gayraud. These fines « akin to the final right to defraud, or to a tax fraud. Experience, this device proves unable to deter the large financial institutions to defraud when he incentives not to reoffend », critical (read here).

In France, their level remains very low compared to what is practised in the Anglo-Saxon countries. A wide range of sanctions exists yet. The authority of prudential and resolution (ACPR), backed by the Bank of France, has a whole arsenal: warning, reprimand, prohibition to perform certain operations for a maximum duration of 10 years, temporary suspension of leaders for 10 years MAX, resignation of office for leaders, withdrawal or partial approval or authorization, and fines that can go up to 100 million euros. Ditto for the Commission des marchés financiers (AMF) AMF sanctions. Pecuniary or disciplinary sanctions could take effect if they were fully used. Problem: AMF sanctions Committee is composed partly of representatives of banks, not necessarily likely, therefore, to a great severity towards their colleagues…

[3] 6.4 of the $ 8.8 billion of transactions at issue in the decision of the United States Department of Justice are indeed Sudan, including 4 billion on behalf of a financial institution owned by the Sudanese State. Source.

[4] the United Nations Security Council before the International Criminal Court (ICC) of the situation in Sudan in 2005. Several arrest warrants have been issued since by the ICC against the Sudanese leaders, including one against president Béchir for crimes against humanity, war crimes (2009) and crime of genocide (2010)

[5] $ 200 million to the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)fine, U.S. federal agency, 300 million by theOffice of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC), 200 million from the Fed (US Federal Reserve), and $ 220 million paid to the British stock market authority CFA.

[6] source. Société Générale has disputed the amount of the fine.

[7] reference document 2014 Bank, p 382

[8] reference document 2013 Bank, p 430

[9] reference document 2014 Bank, p 268

[10] reference document 2013 Bank, p 116

[11] see the report by audit firm KPMG, « Challenge to transparency, financial Communication of European banks in 2013 », June 2014.

[12] $ 1.1 billion $ 1.4 billion Swiss francs. Source.

[13] the offices of HSBC in Manhattan (New York) protected by police at a rally of the movement Occupy in February 2013. The protesters demand that bank officials be imprisoned once they have recognized the involvement of HSBC in the laundering of money from drug and terrorism

Our records

Capitalism That deal with the financial crisis?
• Raw materials French banks continue to ‘speculate on hunger’?
• Tax evasion After HSBC, rearrest citizen in an agency of BNP in Brussels

Your comments

1 on 19 February at 08:29by InfectiondesFinances

Finally! Finally!
Your article, dear drafting of Basta! is a precious start but that deserves to become a permanent topic better documented factually so the issue is fundamental:
First prioritizing issues and not confusing the millions and billions, or trillions.
This first hierarchy encrypted factually will lead quickly to stop diversions derisory in princely or exotic – confetti Monaco, Andorra, Lichtenstein, Jersey Bahamas,… – to focus attention and effort of understanding and action activist, political and public on the three epicenters of systemic in Europe financial crime: Luxembourg for tax evasion of multinational companies, Switzerland for the evasion of the worldwide family dynastiesCity of London-Canary Wharf for systemic manipulation of global financial markets, fixing the price of money: rate inter-bank Libor and Euribor, exchange rate of currencies on the Foreign Exchange Market ForeX, precious metals Gold Fix price,… In these three capitals, one in the heart of the Eurozone, the other in the heart of Europe but outside the Eurozone, the third in the heart of Europe but especially non-EU27, this division of labour should nothing to chance, the stakes are in hundreds of billions of euros per year, for people as for the Free financial and their manipulations of the Free Markets.
The second fundamental factual enormity to document is determined action and the factual results of judicial institutions in the USA since 2008, especially since 2012 and first confession of Barclays on mid-August 2012 Libor who changes the balance of power between US and the multinational banks judicial institutions
– The third factual enormity to document is the difference between the actions of the public authorities: A secret transaction with a secret penalty is an opaque arbitrary, typical TTIP. It is the permanent practice of finance in France at Bercy inspectors because it prevents them to punishment to their comrades in body, or even their future employer. A public transaction with a public document documenting the criminal practices and the confessions of the penalized Bank is what has been practiced to this day by the US judicial authorities. The penalized Bank is too happy to buy cheap – compared to its decennial profits – that there be no public trial. But at least after their confessions in the USA, Switzerland and BNP-Paribas Credit acknowledged the criminal nature of some of their activities under US law: BNP-Paribas: http://www.dfs.ny.gov/about/ea/ea140630.pdf
Credit Switzerland: http://www.dfs.ny.gov/about/ea/ea140519.pdf

When a public trial in France of UBS and HSBC for their industrialization of tax evasion? No multinational Bank has so far had to face a public trial. Yet public at the BP USA trial and its irresponsibility documented in Deepwater Horizon, which ends in the USA this week, proves that a public trial – same civil – allows you to learn and understand practices of multinationals. And the Big Oil Majors include the difference between documented $43 or 53 billion, penalties that cost Deepwater BP, and their impunity in Nigeria, in the Amazon, to the Mexico… Those who are fighting against the arbitral tribunals under the TTIP could at least factually document when a Big Oil Major meets a public authority and a public trial that pay the fair price damage and harm to people and the environment…