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Series: Banks and the « too big to be convicted » doctrine (part 7)

Major banks are massively organizing tax evasion internationally

Another example of ‘Too Big to Jail’: the evasion and international tax fraud organized by leading Swiss Bank UBS.

UBS (Union des Banques Suisses) who had to be rescued from bankruptcy in October 2008 by a massive injection of public money in Switzerland is involved in the scandal of Libor, in the handling of market exchange (UBS is the subject of a thorough investigation of the part of the authorities both in the United States than in the UK, Hong Kong and Switzerland) and in the mis-selling of mortgage products structured to the United States. UBS, HSBC and Credit Switzerland |1. in particular, also specialises in the organisation on a systemic scale of tax evasion by the wealthy of the United States, Europe and elsewhere.2|.

by Eric Toussaint

May 11, 2014 « approximately 120 loads of Swiss business would be present illegally in France to solicit large hexagonal fortunes, which is strictly prohibited by law but directed, according to Antoine Peillon, informed by the parent company in Switzerland. Each commercial is equipped with a document, the manual of Private Banking, ‘real guide in tax evasion’» |3. The testimony of a former employee of UBS, published in January 2014, reinforces the accusations by Antoine Peillon. « The testimony of a former Swiss bank employee, filed with justice and collected by Le Parisien-today ‘ hui in France (January 21 edition), shows that the biggest Swiss banks, which from 2012 under judicial investigation in France, would have established a well system broken in to encourage the French to defraud the taxman. Guillaume Daïeff and Serge Tournaire.the Parisian financial judges in charge of the case, suspect the Union of Swiss banks (UBS) have implemented an extensive system of illegal canvassing of french customers, encouraging them to open accounts not reported in Switzerland in the early 2000s. » |4|.

A few weeks later, in February 2014, appeared in book form another testimony in support of UBS, he is a former employee of UBS in France to organize social activities to customers. ‘Was to bring together the Chargés d’affaires of UBS with their future customers, preferably wealthy, those 50 million €. As you do not seduce a millionaire with a simple coffee, events were to be prestigious. Golf tournament, regatta sailing, night at the opera followed by a dinner at chef… nothing was too beautiful to attract these fortunes.(…) At each event, Swiss business expenses were present in very large numbers. From Lausanne, Geneva, Basel, Zurich, they had for mission to convince the targets, screened by us, to submit their wealth at home. Each year, at the request of Zurich headquarters, we were doing the balance sheet: how many new clients? How much fresh money? The golden rule was that an event should be profitable.’ |5. Given the scandal produced by multiple revelations and the judicial proceedings in France, UBS has banned from April 2014, a portion of its wealth managers travel to France.6|.

While French justice is slow and shy, that nothing is happening in Belgium (yet UBS did the same type of fraudulent transactions in France and elsewhere), UBS is about to come to an agreement with the German authorities. In fact, UBS is negotiating with German justice the amount of the fine that will be imposed for helping taxpayers to escape the taxman. There is talk of a fine of EUR 200 million that will allow it to escape conviction.7. UBS is accused of aiding German clients to hide their fortunes via foundations and trusts to the Liechtenstein. According to the Prosecutor’s office in Bochum who conducted the investigation and led several raids against subsidiaries of UBS in Germany, the funds in question reach about 20 billion €. If the fine is actually 200 million €, this will mean that UBS gets by paying the equivalent of 1% of the defrauded amounts. UBS is the third Swiss Bank fined by the German authorities. Bank Julius Bär and Credit Switzerland respectively paid 50 million € and 149 million €. As for the other examples, UBS avoided so far any real conviction. It must just to deal with scandals that tarnish its image and fines, all in all, quite minor. It must also change its financial strategy but it continues without that its leaders have been worried and not be threatened in its freedom to carry on banking business.

What happened to the United States with UBS confirms the doctrine of « Too Big to Jail ». The case dates back to 2008 when the authorities of the United States begin a statement against UBS accused of organizing a network of tax evasion. UBS managed the fortune of approximately 5 000 North American citizens avoid paying taxes in the United States. Their fortune was placed in Switzerland (after transiting in some cases by other tax havens to scramble the traces). To carry out their investigation, U.S. authorities received information that they had, in 2007, Bradley Birkenfeld a former UBS official specializing in tax evasion.

Bradley Birkenfeld, whistleblower or simple informer?

Bradley Birkenfeld is an American citizen, he started to work in the banking sector in 1991 in a Boston Bank, State Street (13e Bank in the United States).8. He made contact with the FBI in 1994 to denounce the illegal practices of the Bank which he then leaves without that it has been the subject of lawsuits. In 1996, he was hired in the United States as Manager of fortune by Credit Switzerland (2e Swiss Bank), and then in 1998, he spent at Barclays (2e British Bank). In 2001, he joined UBS bringing wealthy clients. He moved to Geneva where he took part in the Organization of the network of tax evasion regarding the United States. He does this under the responsibility of Raoul Weil, one of the patrons of UBS. He left the Bank in 2005 had, he said, become aware of the seriousness of the activities to which he was actively involved. Note that what he was doing for UBS did nothing illegal under the laws of the Switzerland. In 2007, he decided to contact the Ministry of Justice of the United States to denounce the illegal activities of UBS and take advantage of a law that since 2006, protects and rewards those who denounce the tax a fraud.9. Indeed, a whistleblowers (IRS Whistleblower Office) office was created within the administration for the collection of taxes (theInternal Revenue Service, IRS). The homepage of the official website begins with these two sentences:  » the office of whistleblowers from the IRS pays those who launch the alert against those who don’t pay taxes as they are due | .10|. «If the whistleblowers office makes use of the information provided by the whistleblower, it can give it up to 30% of the additional fees, penalties or other amounts it collects » |11. The information that it communicates to the IRS and the justice department allow these two organizations to mount a folder in concrete against UBS. The severity of the activities of UBS under the law of the United States is such that it was necessary to remove the Bank Bank license but, as it happens a little later with HSBC and other major banks, the authorities of Washington will confine themselves to require the payment of a fine (780 million $ in February 2009 in addition to 200 million $ a little later). The United States also get the Bank communicates to them a list of 4 450 names of citizens of the United States who have stashed their wealth in Switzerland through UBS. To get there, Washington has, at times, employee of important means of pressure: the threat to withdraw the license of the Bank and the momentary arrest of some leaders of the Bank, as Raoul Weil appearing in trial in 2014.12|.

Meanwhile, Bradley Birkenfeld, whistleblower, has first paid dearly for his collaboration with the authorities of the United States: he is arrested in May 2008 and brought to justice. In August 2009, he was sentenced to 40 months in prison for his involvement in the illegal activities of UBS. Note that during his indictment B. Birkenfeld, the Attorney acknowledged that without the collaboration of Bradley Birkenfeld the Ministry of justice and the IRS would not have been able to gather all the information that helped get caught UBS. B. Birkenfeld began serving his sentence in January 2010. From his prison, Bradley Birkenfeld appealed to president Barack Obama, he has also introduced a request for review of his case to the Attorney-general Eric Holding and eventually be able to get out of jail after 31 months, early August 2012. What the international press has especially learned, this is what happened to Bradley Birkenfeld after his release from prison to know that the IRS finally paid him $ 104 million $ as reward for the denunciation of the illegal activities of UBS. Indeed, the IRS considered finally that Bradley Birkenfeld was entitled to a percentage of fees and fines that could be collected from wealthy individuals identified through the denunciation.13|.

It is not possible here to enter into the analysis of the exact motivations of Bradley Birkenfeld, is this a White Knight, a whistleblower or a simple jailhouse and bounty hunter? What is important is to make the following observation: the Bank which conducts serious illegal activities as well as those who direct it and planning his misdeeds, benefit from impunity. The Bank must pay at most of indulgences (forgiveness, a fine).

Those who expose the illegal activities of the Bank do so at their own risk. In the case of UBS, Credit Switzerland, of HSBC Switzerland… they are condemned (see the case of Hervé Falciani in L’affaire UBS Switzerland) in the eyes of the Swiss law and the Swiss authorities themselves are not private to the severity of the law against them. In the case of the United States, their situation is more complex. In some cases, they may get a reward but nevertheless risk prison. Since the UBS case / Bradley Birkenfeld, it seems that bankers received the Government of the United States that he avoids financially encourage whistleblowers candidates. To follow.


It must put an end to banking secrecy. Banks must be required to communicate all information about their leaders, their various entities, their clients, the activities they perform and transactions they make on behalf of their customers and for themselves. Similarly, the accounts of the banks must also be legible and understandable. The lifting of bank secrecy must become a minimum democratic imperative for all countries. In practice this means that the banks must keep at the disposal of the tax administration:
•a list of names recipients of interest, dividends, capital gains and other income;
•information on openings, changes and closure of bank accounts to establish a national directory of bank accounts;
•all entries and exits of capital with the identification of the payer.

Must be banned banks to carry out any transaction with a tax haven. The non-respect of the prohibition must be very heavy sanctions until the withdrawal of the banking license and payment of heavy fines (a fine equivalent to the amount of the carried out transaction). The judiciary and the public prosecutor must be encouraged to continue in a systematic way of Bank leaders who are responsible for crimes and financial crimes. You must remove the banking license to institutions that do not comply with the prohibitions and found guilty of malpractice.

Because capitalists have demonstrated how they were able to commit crimes and take risks (which they refuse to accept the consequences) for the sole purpose of increasing their profits, because their activities periodically cause a heavy cost for society, because the society we want to build must be guided by the search for the common goodjustice social and the reconstitution of a balanced relationship between humans and the other components of nature, it is necessary to socialize the banking sector. As proposed by Frédéric Lordon, it comes to achieve « a full de-privatization of the banking sector ».14|.

|1. Financial Times, «  » Credit Switzerland tax probe deepens « , 16 April 2014. » See also: « Credit Switzerland may pay US$ 1.6 b in tax probe », may 6, 2014, http://www.stuff.co.nz/business/world/10014963/Credit-Suisse-may-pay-US-1-6b-in-tax-probe

|2. See in particular the valuable book of Antoine Peillon, these 600 billion missing in the France, the threshold, 2012, 187 pages. See the literature review published in economic Alternatives : « these 600 billion missing in the France. Investigation in the heart of tax evasion », —enquete-au-coeur-de-l-evasion-fiscale_fr_art_1143_58595.html http://www.alternatives-economiques.fr/ces-600-milliards-qui-manquent-a-la-france see also: ‘ the great evasion: a (Productions, 2013 Nilaya) Patrick Benquet doc’, accessed may 9, 2014, http://www.publicsenat.fr/La_grande_evasion_fiscale_documentaire_public_senat

|3. Economic alternatives, « these 600 billion missing in the France. Investigation in the heart of tax evasion », April 2012, —enquete-au-coeur-de-l-evasion-fiscale_fr_art_1143_58595.html http://www.alternatives-economiques.fr/ces-600-milliards-qui-manquent-a-la-france

|4. Le Monde, ‘advisers at UBS were the mule between the France and the Switzerland’, January 21, 2014, http://www.lemonde.fr/economie/article/2014/01/21/des-conseillers-d-ubs-faisaient-la-mule-en-transportant-eux-memes-ces-sommes-de-l-autre-cote-des-alpes_4351540_3234.html

|5. Excerpt from the interview published by Le Parisien, February 6, 2014, http://www.leparisien.fr/espace-premium/actu/le-livre-qui-derange-les-banquiers-suisses-06-02-2014-3563661.php see the book: Stéphanie Gibaud, women who really too, knew the Cherche-Midi, 221 pages, €17. In the aforementioned interview, she said: ‘in the small world of private banking, I am now blacklisted, the CV I send end up systematically in the trash. UBS, I launched a procedure for harassment before the Labour Court and waiting for the criminal justice that it establish the truth. My book, I hope, will enlighten the judges over certain practices and me will help rebuild me.’

|6. Le Parisien, ‘ Tax Evasion: the Bank UBS prohibits its employees to go to France’, may 1, 2014,

|7. Tribune de Genève, « UBS negotiates his fine with the German tax authorities », February 25, 2014, http://www.tdg.ch/economie/ubs-negocie-amende-allemagne/story/26256689 the title of the article is very significant.

|8. Two fairly complete biographical sources: the wikipedia biography of Bradley Birkenfeld (in English, one in french is however lapidary): http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bradley_Birkenfeld (accessed March 3, 2004) and David Voreacos, ‘Banker Who Blew Whistle Over Tax Cheats Seeks forgiveness’, Bloomberg, June 24, 2010, http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2010-06-24/ubs-banker-who-blew-whistle-on-swiss-secrecy-over-tax-cheats-seeks-pardon.html

|9. He also makes contact with the Sub-Commission of the Senate dealing with the offences of the banks under the chairmanship of Senator Carl Levin and he presented his testimony in 2007. This is the same Sub-Commission which dealt later the HSBC case. See the official site of the Sub-Commission: http://www.hsgac.senate.gov/subcommittees/investigations

|10. In this case, we should rather talk about Snitching Office.

|11. ‘IRS Whistleblower Office.’ See the official IRS site: http://www.irs.gov/uac/Whistleblower-Informant-Award , accessed March 3, 2014. « The IRS Whistleblower Office country money to people who blow the whistle on persons who fail to pay the tax that they owe. » If the IRS uses information provided by the whistleblower, it can award the whistleblower up to 30 percent of the additional tax, penalty and other amounts it collects.’

|12| Zachary Fagenson and Reuters, ‘Ex – UBS bank executive pleads not guilty in tax fraud case’, 7 January 2014,

|13. See on the site of the Geneva daily Le Temps, the copy of the decision of IRS Whistleblower Office: http://www.letemps.ch/rw/Le_Temps/Quotidien/2012/09/11/Economie/ImagesWeb/birkenfeld-determination-letter.pdf

|14. Frédéric Lordon, ‘The staggering passivity of « financial re-regulation » ‘, in changing economy, appalled economists, the links that release, 2011, p. 242.

After UBS, HSBC. The Swiss subsidiary of the Bank, HSBC Private Bank asset management, went into review in Paris for « illicit sales » and « laundering of tax evasion. According to information from the world, the indictment date Tuesday, November 18. This is a crucial step in the work of judges Renaud Van Ruymbeke and Charlotte Bilger instruction, investigating since April 2013 to establish if the Bank held any informed massive tax fraud by his wealthy clients to the Switzerland. A week before, it was in Belgium that the Bank had been placed under investigation.

According to Le Monde, HSBC will have to pay a deposit of EUR 50 million. The Bank confirmed having daily…

Hervé Falciani is in France for a few days, after having been chosen almost a year in Spain. On the eve of his hearing behind closed doors by the National Assembly, former computer programmer from HSBC Bank told Mediapart its first hearings by the judges of the financial Pole, how he had tried in vain to meet Jérôme Cahuzac and especially how the Switzerland attempted to negotiate his silence

Several personalities acknowledged during interviews with Mediapart held undeclared HSBC accounts. Among them: Jacques Dessange, Michel Piccoli and Jeanne Moreau. Investigators have also collected many items on the assets off-shore of footballer Christophe Dugarry and former prefect Jean-Charles Marchiani.

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Série : Les banques et la doctrine « trop grandes pour être condamnées » (Partie 7)


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Ms. Lagarde, Mr Juncker: it is you who don’t respect your commitments! 22 January – Renaud Vivien
•Series: 70 years of Bretton Woods, the World Bank and the IMF (part 11)
•The World Bank and the IMF in Indonesia: an emblematic intervention November 2, 2014 – Eric Toussaint World Bank and Philippines 6 October 2014 – Eric Toussaint
•Support from the World Bank and IMF to dictatorships September 12, 2014 – Eric Toussaint
•February 27, 1953: the allies désendettent the Germany
•Greek debt is largely illegal and illegitimate
•Interview with Eric Toussaint on TV Greek
• »Debt is a means of blackmail to impose neo-liberal policies ».
•The Union of Swiss banks like HSBC organizes massive tax evasion internationally
•Syriza and Podemos: the way to the power of the people?
•HSBC: The Bank and the drug barons
•HSBC: a heavy past and sulphur present Bank
•Syriza, fire to the plain or the damp squib?
•Syriza: « a grain of sand in the gears »
•The Greece needs an actual cancellation of much of the debt
•The failure of the debt restructuring Greek in 2012: some lessons learned
•Syriza and Podemos
•If a Syriza Government applied to the letter an of the EU on debt regulation…
•For a true audit of debt Greek
•Restructuring, auditing, suspension and cancellation of debt
•Joseph Stiglitz demonstrates that a suspension of payment of the debt can be beneficial for a country and its population
•The German model and the offensive against social rights
•Thomas Piketty and public debt
•Africa: the drop in the price of raw materials can lead to a new debt crisis

Series: 70 years of Bretton Woods, the World Bank and the IMF (part 5)

Why the Marshall Plan?

August 5, 2014 by Eric Toussaint

The World Bank, as its original name suggests (International Bank for reconstruction and development), had two main objectives:
1. to contribute to the financing of the reconstruction of the destroyed country during World War II.
2 loans for the development of the backward countries (it is a commonly used expression before enters the vocabulary of developing countries). The United States that set the tone at the World Bank and on the international stage decide to dispense with the World Bank for the reconstruction of Europe mission and unilaterally implement a broad financial programme to rehabilitate the European productive unit in their area of influence. The Marshall Plan substitutes for action by the World Bank as the United States have come to the conclusion that donations to Europe in reconstruction will be more efficient and cost-effective for them than loans. This bilateral policy is the strengthening of the capitalist Western bloc dominated by Washington against the dominated Eastern bloc by the USSR.

The authorities of the United States draw lessons from mistakes made in the 1920-1930s, AH!YEAH!BEN, looks like not!

At the end of the first world war, with the Treaty of Versailles, the winners require Germany amounts very important to repay as reparations and war debts.1. Very soon, the Germany struggling to repay and the social discontent rises. The Wall Street crash occurs in 1929, a global economic crisis snaps. The United States drastically reduce capital flows outwards. The Germany stops repayments in France, in Belgium, in Great Britain, which in turn their debts to the United States. The industrialized world is sinking in the recession and mass unemployment settled. International trade fall.

In anticipation of the end of the second world war, Washington authorities decide to adopt a radically different from that adopted at the end of the first world war until the early 1930s. They opt for the establishment of the Bretton Woods institutions and of the United Nations. This is the international institutional part.

It is now analyze what bilateral economic policy advocated by the authorities in Washington.

Offer money rather that lend

The concern of the Government of the United States at the end of the second world war is to maintain full employment achieved him through the colossal war effort. He also wants to secure a trade surplus in the relations of the United States with the rest of the world.2. However the major industrialized countries to import goods from the United States are literally penniless. For European countries to buy American products, must provide dollars in large quantities.

But in what form? For donations or loans?

Simply put, the reasoning of the United States is as follows: « if we pay to the Europeans who are in our camp money they are going to use to buy what they need to rebuild their economy, with what will reimburse us? Dollars that we lent them, they do have more since they have used them to make their purchases from us. Therefore there are only three possibilities. First possibility: they repay in kind. Second possibility: they pay in dollars. Third possibility: we give them money time they recover in the saddle. »

Take the first option: « if they repay in kind rather than in dollars, their products will compete with ours on our internal market, full employment will be threatened with us, the profits of our companies will drop. This is not a good solution. »

Take the second option: « they pay in dollars. The dollars that we lent them, they already used them to buy our products. As a result, so they can pay back us, we must lend them a second time the same amount (need us), plus interest. The risk of exiting in an uncontrollable cycle of debt (blocking or slowing down again the good business market) combines with the risk referred to in the first possibility. If Europeans try to not to accumulate debts to us, they come and sell their products on our market competing businesses. So they will get a portion of the dollars needed to repay us. But it is not enough to get out of debt them. In addition, it will reduce employment among us.3|. »

There is the third possibility: « rather than massively lend money to Europeans (via the World Bank or otherwise), should give them the amount of dollars needed for the reconstruction of their economies, in a relatively short period.  » The Europeans will use dollars received for goods and services provided by the United States. This will ensure an outlet for American exports and, therefore, full employment. Once the reconstruction is carried out, the Europeans not indebted will be able to foot the Bill for what they will buy. »

The authorities of the United States draw the conclusion that it is better to proceed by donations and they launched the Marshall Plan .

The Marshall Plan |4|

Between 1948 and 1951, the United States spend more than 13 billion dollars of the time (including eleven billion in donations) to the restoration of seventeen European countries within the European Organisation of economic cooperation (OEEC, today theOECD). The total amount of the assistance corresponds to about 120 billion dollars by 2013. The United States asked for States accepting aid several counterparties: firstly that the European countries coordinate expenditures for reconstruction within the OEEC. To strengthen the bloc opposed to the Soviet bloc, the Americans have thus contributed to European cooperation, prelude to the construction of Europe. Then, the United States require that money be used to buy products of American industry.

General expenses of the Marshall plan
Economic assistance, from April 3, 1948, to June 30, 1952 (in millions of $).



Total for all countries

$13 325.8

$11 820,7

$1 505.1







68.0 has






2 713,6

2 488.0


Germany (FRG)

1 390.6

1 173.7













Italy (including Trieste)

1 508.8

1 413,2


Netherlands (* Indonesia) b

1 083,5



















United Kingdom

3 189.8

2 805


Regional c



a. total of the loan include 65 million for the Belgium and $ 3 million for the Luxembourg.
b. aid from the Marshall plan to the Dutch East Indies (Indonesia) extended to the Netherlands before the transfer of sovereignty from December 30, 1949.
c. includes the contribution of the United States to the permanent European social fund of the unions (UPR): 361.4 million. This financial windfall was mainly intended to strengthen trade unions acting against communist influence.

In addition to the gifts provided under the Marshall Plan, must be added the partial annulment in 1946 by the debt of France against the United States (cancelled $ 2 billion). Similarly the Belgium benefits from the part of the United States of a debt reduction to compensate for the supplied uranium for the production of the two first American atomic bombs dropped over the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, is causing the first nuclear holocaust. The uranium came from the mine of Shinkolobwe (near Likasi ex-Jadotville) located in the province of Katanga in the Belgian Congo. First Act, the Belgium enjoys a cancellation of debt thanks to its colony which it exploits the natural resources. Second Act, some fifteen years later, she bequeathed to the independent Congo debts to the World Bank to exploit its natural resources and its people (see odious loans colonial cities, in http://cadtm.org/La-Banque-mondiale… ) ).


At the end of the second world war and until today, the major powers have refused to implement a Marshall plan for developing countries (with the exception of the South Korea and Taiwan, see below). Interest loans constituted the fundamental instrument for supposedly finance the development of the third world. To deny them a Marshall plan indicates that creditors do not seriously want that these countries grow and be désendettent. The major powers believe that they have interest in maintaining the largest possible number of developing countries in debt standing so as to draw a maximum income in the form of the payment of the debt. This also allows especially impose policies consistent with the interests of the creditors and to ensure their bid within international institutions.

What the United States realize towards the industrialized countries destroyed by the war through the Marshall Plan was granted in an exceptional way to the Taiwan and South Korea, two countries allied to the United States occupying a strategic position on the edges of the Soviet Union and the China. The United States granted in grants of amounts much superiors to those loaned by the World Bank to the rest of the PED. This is particularly the case of the Korea South and Taiwan receiving crucial assistance which will be one of the ingredients for their success from the 1950s.

To give an idea: between 1954 and 1961, South Korea has received grants from the United States a sum greater than the total loans granted by the World Bank in the independent countries of the third world (India, Pakistan, Mexico, Brazil, including Nigeria). South Korea has received grants from the United States more than 2,500 million dollars between 1953 and 1961 while loans granted by the Bank to all independent developing countries during the same period amounted to $ 323 million. Donations to Taiwan amounted to nearly 800 million dollars during this period.5. Because she occupied a strategic position facing China and the USSR, the agrarian South Korea small inhabited by fewer than 20 million people received the favor of the United States. In terms of economic policy, the Bank and the United States condoned in Korea and Taiwan that they refused the Argentina, the Brazil or the Mexico. Thats what I developed in the article on the Korea of the South between 1945 and the mid-1990s (see Éric Toussaint, ‘ South Korea: miracle unmasked « , published in March 2006, http://cadtm.org/Coree-du-Sud-le-miracle-demasque )).

|1. John Maynard Keynes, employed by the British Treasury, had participated actively in the negotiations of the Treaty of Versailles (1919), which concludes the first world war. Opposed to the extent of repairs required by the Germany, he resigned from the British delegation and later published a book entitled the economic impact of peace (Keynes, 1919), see full text: http://classiques.uqac.ca/classiques/keynes_john_maynard/consequences_paix_1/keynes_consequences_paix.pdf

|2. This is what happened: the trade balance of the United States which was deficit remained positive until 1971. In other words, the United States exported more than they import.

|3. « Opposition to a refund in the form of imports is a constant of that country on the grounds that this causes a competition for domestic producers and contributes to unemployment » Randolph E. Paul.  » 1947 taxation for Prosperity, Bobbs-Merrill, Indianapolis, quoted by pay, Cheryl.1991 ibid., p.20.

|4. Information and table from the encyclopedia: http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Marshall

|5. Author’s calculations. Source: 1) annual reports of the BM 1954-1961, 2) US Overseas Loans and Grants (Greenbook) http://qesdb.cdie.org/gbk/index.html

USA: Janet Yellen criticized Congress for having denounced the inequality
Washington – President of Reserve Federal American (EDF) Janet Yellen vigorously defended itself any bias political in its denunciation social inequalities in the United States, facing accusations of several Republican elected to Congress Wednesday.

In testimony before the Committee on financial services of the House of representatives, Ms. Yellen has been criticized by conservative politicians of giving in October a speech denouncing inequities in the U.S. tax, two weeks before the Congressional elections.

I have mentioned a significant problem affecting the American society. I haven’t taken a political stance, defended Ms. Yellen, a Democrat. I did offer a political recommendation, I have taken note of trends, she added.

The patron saint of the Fed had, last October during an economic conference in Boston (Massachusetts), devoted a long speech to the digging of the inequalities in the country, indicating that the widening gap between rich and poor in the United States concern much. It was asked if this trend was in agreement with values rooted in the history of the country.

Accused Wednesday by the Republicans elect Sean Duffy (Wisconsin) and Scott Garrett (NJ) including for mentioning this theme under the influence of the Democratic Party shortly before the November elections, Ms. Yellen replied that inequalities were a problem that should concern the elected representatives of the two parties. This is an issue that should concern all of the elect in this piece, she said.

A movement of Republican elected officials (Audit the Fed) currently calls for a stronger control of the U.S. Federal Reserve which opposes Ms. Yellen who says that a Central Bank is most effective when it is independent of political power.

You put your nose in matters which do not look you!, launched at the address to the patron saint of the Fed another conservative, Mick Mulvaney (South Carolina), blaming the Central Bank to worry long term for example unemployment.

In the November elections, the Republican Party had strengthened its majority in the House and won a majority in the Senate.

As the Federal Reserve, which Ms. Yellen took the reins a year ago exactly, in February 2014, this is the first time since Paul Volcker in 1987 that it is led by a clearly identified head as democratic.

During his testimony Wednesday to the House, which lasted three hours, Ms. Yellen also estimated that a stronger increase in wages would be beneficial for the U.S. economy. The Fed expects that wages rise (…) and it is something we would like to see, she said

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Le soutien de la Banque mondiale et du FMI aux dictatures

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Fed audit, why opposed t – on, if hardement an audit of the fed, an idea emitted by full of Americans another man, jesse;; alex jones… etc…!

This morning, on media I heard something, which made me warm to the heart, but which intrigued me I heard that some Americans settled in France, so much the better, but what intrigues me, but these people there do not have fear, arrive on a continent, on which they could be achieved early senility, because it happens on the so-called ‘old continent’, in France, it’s true that when, on the former first found JM.AYRAULT, it’s scary, and it has no desire to stay there, I thoughts. You know, when even that despite morons, who lead us  »you’ re WELCOME  »

The Baker of the provocative

This morning, on media I heard a thing, that there was a Baker making cakes down, representing gods, of the prominent parties, if it can relieve to gender in cakes, why, if he thinks that represent his cock into cake, it can help him, finally, that proves that, it not fly very high, you see, immediately, to have to matter. !!!!!!and say, that sometimes, those are people, like this, that we represented in departmental and regional councils, and town halls, it is fear!, it was which TV, which the accompanied, FR3, it amazes me, not even

TELEVISION Denouncing the treatment of catastrophic of the shooting « Charlie Hebdo » on 7 January in the national « 12/13 », edition several unions had called a strike for Monday midday…

Strike at France 3: direction, « who wants to hide the problem » has maintained the national newspaper

The strike at France 3, what strike? Shocked by the coverage (or lack of) conducted by the national edition of 12/13 the day of the attack in Charlie Hebdo, several unions had called all employees in drafting national France 3 to strike, inviting them to « cease work on Monday, January 26 from 11 h 45 for a duration of 59 minutes. In « hustling » on 12/13, so they wanted to express « their outrage and their anger at this editorial failure which ridiculed the drafting, » according to a statement published by several unions (SNJ, CFDT and CGT). But surprise, there was indeed a national newspaper at midday on the public channel.

« Branch extended sauce with trays and direct, and using stories that were already ready.  » She wanted to hide the problem by airing a normal newspaper», says Serge Cimino, journalist at France 3 and member of the SNJ, contacted by 20 Minutes. « It would have preferred that there is nothing to the antenna, » he continues, while ensuring that the mobilization was important in national writing.

The results of the internal expected inquiry

Employees mobilized Monday asked once again the direction to give them ‘a document drop-down the wire of the day on 7 January’ drafting, ‘the black box of the editorial crash’, to find out what had happened during the two hours that preceded the newscast. A document that they have not obtained. « I understand the disappointment and frustration of journalists. Nobody is satisfied with this edition of January 7. But I’m not ready to appear in public the responsibilities of any particular person, reacted Pascal Golomer, the Director of the national editor of France 3, contacted by 20 Minutes. Lessons are to shoot and with debriefs have been made. This isn’t displaying responsibilities on a document that will improve things. Should take measures so that the editions are better armed in this type of situations. »

When the journalist Samuel Etienne took the antenna for the national edition of the 12/13 Wednesday, January 7, 2015, the shooting had already occurred at the premises of Charlie Hebdo, but JT has devoted to this attack as a topic for a minute just and one direct by phone, from the reports as the opening balances or even swimming in winter. Meanwhile, France 2 was about to make a special edition and Itele was already in ‘breaking news’ on the spot. Result: France Télévisions has replaced the Chief Editor of the national edition of the 12/13, Regis Poullain, for its « lack of reactivity ». « I do me please not the sanction of the Chief Editor. It may be the only one to be punished, it’s unfair, »reacts Serge Cimino. Emphasizing a ‘real issue editorial’, he says: ‘ branch has nothing understood the deep crisis in the national drafting.»

The rapprochement with France 2 filigree

Steward insists particularly on the thorny issue of the reconciliation of France 2 and France 3, which should come to fruition this year. The rivalry between two editors has been revived in recent weeks. France 2 would have crushed France 3 when it took cover Charlie Hebdo. « Days that followed January 7, all means are found requisitioned by France 2 for special coverage. « Sharing and merging, it’s going to be for the benefit of a large chain », railed Serge Cimino. Pascal Golomer defends this project: « the fear that a privileged antenna is not founded. We want to build a common drafting to produce different contents for the two chains, who keep all their editions. » He acknowledges however that « France 2, which assured 11 h direct needed more resources than France 3 for 25 minutes of journal », in overtaking: « It is being service by service a debrief to see where coordination has not been effective enough. »

Serge Cimino jittery not: « our General Assembly Monday has been very successful. There were many people, 70 to 80 people. There has been a decision taken unanimously to support on a number of subjects that hurt as the tutelage of France 2 ». Before prevent: « this movement is running. Management wants to hide conflicts but it is there and it is deep. The next movement will not make 59 minutes and management will be forced to fold. »


I realize that the last universal exposition, dates from l900 to PARIS ‘, but 1992 was in SEVILLE, Shangaien 2010, which moreover are certainly very interesting, if one has the means to break free and go to MILAN in 2015, Shanghai, SEVILLE, and I noticed that he never had as much pub for the exhibition, it may be, that the TV put booths to lure the barge , at end, chais not, it may be, as, at the salon of agriculture, finally, I have never seen so many pub, anyway.

CocaCola, which is not good for your health, I noticed also that often firms, factories, enterprises, want their market monopoly, which is normal to want, however, at any price, not agree ca, not at any price, because it is often without, give the choice to consumers and other firms competing, I noticed it at some large companies American GOOGLE , FACEBOOK (Pbs with MESSENGER) COCACOLA (Fanta) knowing that those working in the same branch, will be brought to worked sets a day, but, unfortunately their selfishness and their poor liver will do the rest, in the meantime, read this;

The Coca-Cola danger



Sunday, January 20, 2013


There is little time a story of Olivia Mokiejewski is spent on France 2 for processing of ingredients in Coca-Cola. What is striking in this story it is the silence of the firm as soon as she learns that the questions are for a documentary. Employees of the company received then instructed to no longer answering questions… Have things to hide?

I therefore decided to focus more closely on Coca-Cola…

A beautiful story…Invented

The official version of their own history, (a doctor by chance finding the formula of coca-cola in seeking a drug), is far from reality to believe William Reymond author of the book « Coca-Cola: the prohibited investigation. The drink comes from a french beverage, « Vin Mariani », popular and imported into the United States at the time. The inventor of coca-cola would have begun by imitating the recipe and following a decree banning alcohol consumption in Atlanta, would have mixed (legal at the time) cocaine with caffeine to reproduce the « bullwhip effect » of the « Vin Mariani. We are therefore very far from the Nice doctor who created a drink originally supposed be a drug and therefore good for health…

A dangerous drink

The brand sells 1.7 billion drinks per day in more than 200 countries in the world! In 2010 the Coca-Cola Group made a turnover of more than EUR 26.5 billion, an increase of 45% compared to 2006. This gigantic firm known worldwide is far from being perfect. We look primarily to the mythical trademark drink and the effects it has on the human body.
•A rate excessive sugar:

A can of Coca-Cola (33 cl) contains 35 g of sugar equivalent to 7 pieces of sugar!A 2-litre Coca-Cola bottle contains 212g of sugar equivalent to 42.5 lumps of sugar! Classic Coca-Cola contains, as we see it, a huge amount of sucrose. Too high-dose sugar can have harmful effects on health and cause cavities, diabetes, obesity (from who one out of two adults is overweight and one in six is obese in the world. More than 20 million french are overweight or obese in 2009, according to a survey by INSERM. A large study in the United States on 43 000 adults and 4 000 adolescents demonstrated that drinking one or more soft drinks per day, increased by 27% the likelihood of becoming obese. In addition, 62 percent of adults who drink at least one soda per day are overweight or obese).
•A morbid acidity:

Phosphoric acid is a hidden acidifier as E338. It is present in sodas and colas in particular. A can of cola of 33cl is 44 to 62 mg and his counterpart lightened between 27 and 39 mg. Phosphoric acid which gives this sour taste to the Coca-Cola presents risks for health. Indeed, high levels of phosphoric acid promote kidney stones and kidney function. U.S. researchers conducted a study on 500 people who kidney failure had been diagnosed. Comparing them with a control group and by collecting information on eating habits, more specifically on the consumption of beverages, they noticed that from two glasses of Coca-Cola per day, the risk of renal failure were multiplied by two, the health reporter, Isabelle Eustache. She said that this was also the case with the «Light» Coca-Cola and that no association could be established for other soft drinks, which use for most citric acid. Phosphoric acid is also known to slow digestion, promote bone diseases such as osteoporosis and curb the uptake of calcium by the bones.
•The problem of caffeine:

The caffeine contained in a can (33 cl) ranged from 33 (classic Coca-Cola) and 42 mg (Coca-Cola Light). The dose which begins to feel the adverse effects of caffeine per day is 200mg. Combined with your coffee of the day, there is thus a risk to absorb a toxic dose of caffeine that spirit of adverse side effects and problems:

-Cardiovascular (hypertension, tachycardia) may, in cases, extreme cause one death sudden


-Respiratory (brochodilatation)


-Behavioural Neuro (anxiety, irritability, tremor etc.)
•A carcinogenic dye:

The CSPI (Center for Science in the Public Interest) recently told the Daily Mail that Coca-Cola and Pepsi use a caramel to colour their drinks, which is carcinogenic. Indeed, two chemical substances would cause cancers: MI-2 and MI-4. The spokesman for the organization said that: « Unlike toffee prepared at home, melting sugar in a pan, the artificial version of color »coca »is the result of the chemical reaction produced by the sugar association, ammonia and sulphites high temperature. This process would be to create these two toxic substances which, according to studies conducted on rodents, cause of « cancers of the lung, liver, thyroid and leukemia. Experts say that this type of caramel could cause thousands of cancers. The American Institute of toxicological prevention would have confirmed that these two substances would be carcinogenic in animals and therefore potentially in humans. This new has not pleased everyone: Coca-Cola responded by stating that « our drinks are completely safe » and adds that ‘extrapolations of IPS cells for human health and cancer are totally unfounded. The State of California also forced the firm to strongly reduce the presence of the dye in cans sold in the State under penalty of there be forbidden for consumption.

And yet the public authorities do not really broadcast specific prevention messages and shall not require the company to indicate the risks of consuming their drink.
•An environmental threat:

Coca-Cola uses 10 000 litres of water per second. The 290 billion liters, only 114 billion are used for the production of beverages, a little less than 40% of removals. The 176 billion remaining litres are used during the manufacturing process for rinsing, heating, or air conditioning. In other words, to make one litre of drink, the company uses on average 2.5 litres of water. To find all this water, need, of course, to groundwater pumping in the installation of plants that release toxic and waste water waste, not to mention used pesticides that pollute the environment.

How Coca-Cola comes out when even and why does not change :

Thanks to a very good marketing strategy which leads its consumers to consider the « Coca-Cola as a happiness factory », their sales continue to grow. First of all, their history revised for we suggest that Coca is good for our health (derivative of a drug): also has never said or heard that Coca helps to cure stomach ache? Then, various advertisements at the same time long, magical, suggesting that there is a magical world filled with creatures who work to provide us with our small bottles. They sell us the dream and they sell it to us well.

Their marketing strategy yet shock if one leans on it. In Africa, after having operated water supplies and reduced the population to go look elsewhere, the company decides to distribute them bottles of Coca, for free, as a volunteer and benefactor and makes us forget that it is they who were thirsty. The consumer must always having coca on hand, must always see the coca and think coca because when there thirst, he will turn to the coca and coca will increase its sales…Thus, in Abidjan, Coca-Cola is present everywhere: coffee at the glacier via the vendor (company providing even the trolley in the colours of coca-cola…). In Mexico, Coca-Cola offers merchants to large and beautiful transparent refrigerators to condition that only the company’s products of Coca-Cola is being exposed. So, when customers come to buy, they will buy cold drinks, or only those stored in refrigerators will be and they will buy bottles of the Coca-Cola company! It is these techniques that Coca-Cola manages still to increase sales and eliminate competition locally!

If Coca-Cola Enterprises continues to use these yet harmful ingredients, this recipe has been proven and that the authorities are hardly likely to claim a change (health scandal in India and the State of California), then why kill the goose laying golden eggs?

Because indeed, Coca-Cola Enterprises, one of the main brand of soda bottlers indicates aim throughout fiscal 2011 EPS (earnings per share) at the top of the range between $ 2.20 and $ 2.24. Revenues are expected in increase of approximately 5%. For 2012, the management indicates target growth of bpa between 10 and 12% (at constant perimeter and Exchange). Sales are anticipated an increase of 5 to 9% while the cash free flows are expected to about 550 M$.

« For the two years 2011 and 2012, our growth prospects are level or above our long term goals… », said John F. Brock, CEO of Coca-Cola Enterprises. « While we continue to face challenges due to sustained macro-economic weakness, we believe that our strategies and our portfolio of successful brands will continue to create value for consumers, for customers and, ultimately, for our shareholders. » Coca-Cola Enterprises announced anticipate for 2013 growth of 10% of its earnings per share, while the 2012 bpa is expected at the top of the range of $ 2.20 to 2.24. 2012 sales are expected growing single-digit, 1-5%, then the progression of the 2013 activity is expected closer to 5%. The Board of Directors of the company has approved a new programme of share buybacks of $ 1.5 billion, including at least 500 M$ next year.

If this article has not convinced you to stop consuming soft drinks types cola here is a summary which might make you change your mind:

-Sodas are unnecessary nutritionally.

-This is the only water sweetened with additives.

-They increase the risk of becoming obese, diabetic, to develop cavities.

-They can cause osteoporosis and slow the growth of bones.

-These drinks are dangerous to the kidneys (kidney calculations), the liver and the pancreas.

-They are hampering the proper functioning of the digestive tract.

-By the high concentration of caffeine they promote dehydration and the leakage of minerals by the diuretic effect (which will add all the undesirable side effects from an overdose of caffeine: cardiac problem…).

-The dye used in some sodas is probably carcinogenic to humans.

-These companies exploit the resources in waters of poor people depriving them of the right to provide drinking water, drastically reducing the level of groundwater, polluting the basements with their waste.

-It currently takes 2.5 litres of water to produce 1 L of Coca-Cola.

… Then change the drink (water, tea, fruit juices)

Some tips, which I think is true, and useful

Coca cola (harmful to health) – usthb bio-forum – home

Study of the Institut Pasteur study practical and surprising


In many States of the USA Rail patrols load two trims (~ 7.5 litres) of Coca Cola in their racks to clean the blood on the road after an accident.

If you put a bone in a container with Coca Cola, the os will dissolve within 2 days.

To clean the toilet: pour a can of Coca Cola and let ‘sit’, then flush with water.

Coca Cola citric acid removes stains on dishes.

To remove the chrome bumper rust stains cars rub the bumper with a piece of aluminum foil soggy with Coca Cola.

To clean objects consumed by loss of liquid from car batteries, pour a can of Coca Cola on the corrosion.

To remove spots of fat of clothing pour a can of Coca-Cola into the washing machine with the stained cloth and add the detergent.

The Coca-Cola will help remove fat stains.

Coca Cola even helps clean the windshield of the car.

For our information:

The active ingredient of Coca Cola is phosphoric acid.

Its PH is 2.8 and dissolve a nail in about 4 days.

Phosphoric acid in addition to steals calcium from bones and is the main cause of increase of osteoporosis.

We are one
Langue source

Ce matin ,sur les médias j’ai entendu un truc ,qui m’a fait chaud au cœur ,mais ,qui m’a intrigué j’ai entendu que certains américains s’installaient en France, tant mieux ,mais ce qui m’intrigue ,mais ,ces gens là n’ont pas peur ,d’arriver sur un continent ,sur lequel, ils pourraient être atteint d’une sénilité précoce ,parce qu’il arrive sur le dit ‘vieux continent ‘

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Hello all were are one

Revealed: UK top 20 companies paradise tax

When the boss of Barclays Bob Diamond has confirmed that the Bank had approximately 300 subsidiaries in tax havens, there are exclamations of dismay to a Committee of the Treasury Board, heard earlier this month.

Hidden: Many of BP’s companies is based in Bermuda

Little the highly charged meeting would have believed that such a vast network of companies offshore existed, potentially allowing the Bank and its customers to avoid huge sums in tax.

They would still be in the dark had MP Chuka Abdullah not put figure at the diamond in the first place.

But an investigation by the Financial Mail can reveal that structure Byzantine of Barclays is far from rare. In fact, it is more the tip of the iceberg as the largest companies in Britain are concerned.

More than 1 000 subsidiaries in offshore tax havens are operated by 20 largest companies of Great Britain only.

British tax authorities are currently in secret war with tax jurisdictions. Only Friday last Revenue & Customs held his first meeting with the Swiss negotiators on a plan to recover the tax of more than 100 billion £ dirty distance by UK taxpayers to bank accounts in Switzerland, Financial Mail includes.

The largest companies are not likely to be exempt from the tax in the same manner as individuals, but through their subsidiaries networks, they can structure their affairs so as to avoid the tax.

And while there is no way to accurately measure the amount of tax that businesses have avoided to pay the Exchequer over the years due to their opaque offshore structure, level of their presence in secret offshore jurisdictions raises serious questions about what they do there.

Revelation: Bob Diamond Barclays boss, said the Bank had approximately 300 companies in tax havens

At a time where we are told that we are ‘all in this together’, many will want to know if laborious bretons are picking up the tab unpaid tax by our largest companies.

Adil, Labour MP for Streatham, South London, said: « tax avoidance by big business on a large scale is in years and it’s time the Government got a grip on it. It costs the Exchequer more than £25 billion a year. We could reduce this deficit by clamping down on the gaps and to ensure revenue & Customs has the resources to do this. »

›› See the full list of tax havens

Among the largest hoarders of subsidiaries – with 85 in jurisdictions super-secret, according to Companies House – is BP. In an ironic twist, his tax Chief, John Bartlett, was appointed this month by the Government to sit on a Panel on tax evasion. According to the Treasury, group « is part of the Government’s commitment to the fight against tax avoidance and strengthening sustainable means of defence to mitigate the risks of long-standing avoidance ».

A spokesman for BP that it had only 67 companies registered in offshore territories. « ‘ Bermuda and Luxembourg together account for two-thirds of them – Bermuda mainly because many companies focused on the BP Shipping are based there and the Luxembourg due to our pan-European trading and marketing, » he said.

Vodafone, which is in dispute with New Delhi on its tax bill, has 20 companies on the ocean Indian island of Mauritius, which has concluded an agreement allowing companies to avoid the Indian capital gains tax.

The telecommunications giant recently concluded an agreement with the collector of taxes owed by a Luxembourg subsidiary. Critics say that it descended with a beak billion £1 where he would have had to pay £6 billion – and the National Audit Office is now studying the tax authorities to try to see if proper procedures were followed in this area and in other cases. Vodafone has 50 companies in tax havens. A spokesman said: ‘when we acquired our participation in India, we bought a company Cayman of Hutchison and below who had a certain number of Mauritian companies.’

HSBC has 62 companies in offshore centres, especially in the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man. The Bank said that it offered only banking services at retail to local customers. Royal Bank of Scotland has 121 branches in offshore tax centres. He said that one third of those of the Cayman Islands – where he had 70 subsidiaries according to her annual statement – were British tax system, which means that they pay full UK tax. He said that some since had been sold, while the other subsidiaries were part of its international banking activities.

Lloyds Banking Group, which has 135 offshore companies, said that it meets their tax obligations. Standard Chartered bank has 37 branches in offshore centres.

Shell has 47 offshore subsidiaries, mainly in Bermuda, although the company stated that its holding company, Royal Dutch Shell Group, is based in the Hague and tax non-British.

Tesco has 40 branches, mostly in the Cayman Islands and Jersey. Minor Anglo American was joined by Grolsch Brewer SAB Miller in refusing to give figures.

Bill Dodwell, an expert from the tax to the Deloitte accountant, said: « the Offshore companies can be used to British tax planning, but there are many cases where it is to do with favorable corporate law. »

A spokesman for revenue from operations in tax havens, often act as a red flag for investigators. « If we see a company with a subsidiary somewhere known to be a tax haven, it raises our risk assessment, » he said.

Name: Top 20 companies UK tax havens

A survey of Financial Mail revealed today more than 1 000 subsidiaries in offshore tax havens are operated by the 20 largest companies in Britain.

Tax haven: Guernsey, Channel Islands

Here we detail the tax havens using these companies.

Total number of subsidiaries in tax havens

Shell – 47
HSBC – 62
BP – 85
Vodafone – 50
Glaxo – 13
Rio – 18
BHP – 24
British American Tobacco – 41
Lloyds Banking Group – 135
Unilever – 5
RBS – 121
Xstrata – 7
Barclays – 298
Diageo – 7
BG Group – 10
Tesco – 40
Standard Chartered – 37
Anglo-American-figures not available
SAB Miller – figures not available
AstraZeneca – 3

Total – 1003

Tax havens analyzed: Cayman Islands, Jersey and Guernsey, Isle of Man, Gibraltar, Bermuda, Virgin Islands British, Turks & Caicos Islands, Vanuatua, Luxembourg, Mauritius, Malta, Cyprus, Nauru, Monaco, Panama and Liechtenstein

Detailed breakdown of where the undertakings operate:

Shell – 47

Cayman Islands – 6
Jersey and Guernsey – 2
Isle of Man – 4
Bermuda – 35

BP – 85

Cayman Islands – 13
Jersey + Guernsey – 5
Gibraltar – 2
Bermuda – 15
British Virgin Islands – 22
Luxembourg – 21
Mauritius – 1
Cyprus – 1 Panama – 5

HSBC – 62

Cayman Islands – 6
Jersey and Guernsey – 33
Isle of Man – 6
British Virgin Islands – 12
Luxembourg – 2
Panama – 2
Liechtenstein – 1

Vodafone – 50
Cayman Islands – 1
Jersey and Guernsey – 13
Bermuda – 1
Luxembourg – 11
Mauritius – 20
Malta – 4

Glaxo – 13

Cayman Islands – 1
Jersey and Guernsey – 2
Bermuda – 3
Luxembourg – 1
Mauritius – 2
Malta – 1
Cyprus – 1 Panama – 2

Rio Tinto – 18

Cayman Islands – 5
Jersey and Guernsey – 2
Bermuda – 9
Panama – 2

RBS – 121

Cayman Islands – 71
Jersey and Guernsey – 30
Isle of Man – 3
Gibraltar – 3
Bermuda – 3
British Virgin Islands – 4
Luxembourg – 6
Liechtenstein – 1

Lloyds TSB Bank Plc + Bank of Scotland – 135

Cayman Islands-28
Jersey and Guernsey – 88
Isle of Man – 2
Gibraltar – 4
British Virgin Islands – 6
Luxembourg – 4
Panama – 1
Liechtenstein – 2

British American Tobacco – 41

Cayman Islands – 1
Jersey and Guernsey – 18
Isle of Man – 4
British Virgin Islands – 1
Luxembourg – 2
Malta – 2
Cyprus – 5
Panama – 6
Liechtenstein – 2

Unilever – 5

Bermuda – 3
Panama – 2

Barclays – 298

Cayman Islands – 179
Jersey and Guernsey – 55
Isle of Man – 30
Gibraltar – 3
British Virgin Islands – 3
Luxembourg – 16
Mauritius – 6
Malta – 2
Monaco – 1
Panama 1
Cayman 1
Bermuda 1

Diageo – 7

Jersey and Guernsey – 4
Panama – 1
Cyprus – 1
Bermuda – 1

BG Group – 10

BVI – 6
Cayman Islands – 3
Mauritius – 1

Tesco – 40

Cayman Islands – 16
Luxembourg – 4
Mauritius – 1
Jersey and Guernsey – 15

Standard Chartered-37

Jersey and Guernsey – 12
Bermuda – 1
Cayman Islands – 10
Mauritius – 10
Isle of Man – 2

AstraZeneca – 3

Panama – 1
Cayman – 1
Bermuda – 1

Xstrata – 7

Cayman – 1
Bermuda – 6

SwissLeaks: Belgian justice increase the tone and threatens Switzerland

Gilbert Dupont Published Monday, February 09, 2015
• SwissLeaks: PS offers three ‘strong measures’ pay to fight the great tax fraud


Threats expressed Monday morning in Brussels at the press conference of the Prosecutor’s office through its substitution Rym Kechiche spokesperson.

In the matter of the fraud alleged Swiss Bank (payment of amounts of several hundreds of millions of euros of tax evasion), the investigating judge Belgian Michel Claise notes that « the Swiss justice turned a deaf ear’, unresponsive »two months to requests for mutual legal assistance expressed by the commission ». Swiss justice « turned a deaf ear » while Switzerland and Belgium are linked by a convention which obliges to this mutual assistance.

According to the Prosecutor’s office in Brussels, the Belgian judge is in contact with HSBC Bank to invite it to spontaneously provide the data requested as to the amounts of suspicious financial transactions.

And Brussels rising tone. S it is not satisfied with these requests, Belgian justice does not exclude (« could and consider ») to use coercive means « and »issue international arrest warrants charge of alumni and even current leaders of HSBC », heads of criminal organization, aggravated tax fraud, illegal practice of intermediary financial and money laundering.

In 2006 and 2007, the bank HSBC Geneva one implementation of a system of tax evasion. The placement of money from its customers in offshore companies permit the escape of more than 252 billion through payroll over 200 pour on behalf of 130 000 natural or legal persons. Images of fr the explanations.

Several media, not Le Soir, published Sunday evening a new survey of the international network of journalists investigation ICIJ, that the Swiss bank HSBC Private Bank has developed the main on 102 billion dollars in deposits from around the world, and has actively customers to its help to evade their tax obligations. Pour the Belgium, fraud is $ 6.2 billion.

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Hi all

http:// creachmichelblog.wordpress.com/ French, English

http:// creachmichel2014.wordpress.com Italian, Spanish

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Then, not more, knowing what, invent, MARISSOL TOURAINE and VALLS (Yes, I say VALLS because we doubt, that she has not thought alone), they hand us on the mat, the neutral package and single-drug to spite the world knowing, that this will not advanced hair, the schmiblick and that it wants not one , or the other, do not be surprised, if it déboule, after all, you it will be searched for on the history of its unique drug, should be can be as one stops to take us for idiots, we are well aware that laboratories, will get full pockets, and stop wanting us to believe that it is to limit either saying them too many drugs , Stop and clear of power, this makes 40 time you we’re lying, it is 40 years that you turned crazy, and even now with the case of the BUGALED BREIZH and you believe that we are going to trust you, but you dream, you see, I am convinced, that it n will be that only one round in 2017, so, yen is fed up of everything you represent (UMPSDI(, in the same bag)

AH to the fact, for info, but you know since you made before, it was the crossword in the National Assembly, now, c is Smartphones (DATI, PECRESSE, MORANO) and others. on the what, on tap, normal, if you do, do it with a bit of decency.


Putin , there, in these cases there, realized the strength of the people, when, that ci like its leader,and how, a leader can be appreciate it, proves one thing is that if a leader is the natural extension of a people, like the tail of a dog, it will follow, eyes closed, on the other hand, if it is the attention to the damage contraire(si le chien se mord la queue), even if those are things that we know, just not to forget in short, against the Crimea against the Ukraine, he realized, even, if he knew before, against Crimea, when it had a standing ovation(tout le monde s’est levé d’un seul trait) to a meeting very important,(mais malheureusement, je ne me rappel plus dele de nom de cette réunion) on the part of its members, or other,(je ne sais pas,comment, on les appelle), and in Ukraine, seeing, all these Ukrainian soldiers get express stop and not by 10 by 90, see 120, because asked the impossible(tirer sur la population), then the people was in a small Committee, so if one is pushed a climax, I do, tell you (OH! If), eh, I’d like to bieng you meu discusses!, GAGs, cit « .the unknown ‘

AREVA: the disturbing results of Lauvergeon years


Pay-political governance deal Uramin, Finnish EPR, financial situation… In its report on the 2006-2012 period, the Court of Auditors is the trial of the french nuclear group.

This was to be a regular report, as the Court of Auditors in writes regularly on the sphere of State-owned businesses. But Areva is not an ordinary business, and the period to which the magistrates of the rue Cambon are interested is not more to it: between 2006 and 2012, the french nuclear group will have all known, renewal from Atom to the Fukushima disaster, hopes of opening up of capital to the threats of dismantling. These years will be particularly marked by the battle between its former President, Anne Lauvergeon, his « best enemies », Henri Proglio and Patrick Kron. A fierce fight found echo throughout this « statement of preliminary findings. 122 pages long, this document should lead to a final report expected at the end of the month, but nothing will change on the bottom. Governance to the fiasco of the Finnish EPR, passing through case Uramin and the questioning of the « integrated model » of Areva, the Court is sea the management of the company and worries about its future…

The faults of governance

Seldom a report of the Court of Auditors have been so « incarnate ». If the name of Anne Lauvergeon is finally little quoted, his personality and his style of management are exposed almost on every page. The magistrates of the Court stated: « a number of difficulties of the group, particularly in relation to guardianship, in the period prior to 2012, come primarily from the strong personality of the President of the Executive Board. » Between other dysfunctions, the drafters of the report refer to these ‘elliptical records or meetings on paper’, they deem unsatisfactory nor the  » concentration of real power in the hands of the President ». These reproaches, Anne Lauvergeon considers them unfounded. In its response to the original transmitted last month to the Court considers as«a strong and dynamic personality was needed to succeed the creation of such a group, develop the world nuclear leader, motivate teams».

But the criticism of judges does not stop there. In the chapter devoted to the Organization and governance of Areva, they also denounce the policy of remuneration of the leaders of the group before 2012: « the remuneration of the former President of the Executive Board had a very rapid progression in his second term. Such a development was based on an assertive claim of catch-up by comparison with the CAC 40 business leaders. The late discovery of records whose mismanagement today very expensive group to criticize such a progression, based in large part on success rates falsely precise. »

Evidently, even « If person issues play a role, » the social model of Areva, based on a supervisory board and a Management Board has, for the Court, clearly lived. ‘In the current scheme of governance, the Executive Board could take only the decision to sign the contract of the Finnish EPR OL3, source of a loss of more than 3 billion euros for Areva. The Governing Council would in the State, who would be represented, to pronounce on large commercial offers from Areva and stop the accounts’, underline the magistrates. The idea is not new. Pierre Blayau, the current Chairman of the Supervisory Board, is responsible to think since 2012. Changes in this sense could intervene in the coming months. But has yet to decide if, in this new configuration, the president would also be CEO. Corroborating sources, the separation of the two functions would be privileged today. That assumes that the Chairman of the Board, Luc Oursel, agrees to become ‘simple’ CEO…

The « obscure areas » the Uramin folder

Friday, May 16, the correctional tribunal of Paris will examine a murky business of spying, for the husband of the former boss of Areva, Anne Lauvergeon. Originally, a report made by a pharmacy of economic intelligence based in Switzerland, on the conditions of redemption of Uramin, a small Canadian mining company holding deposits of uranium in Africa. Paid high price (1.8 billion euros) in 2007, the three deposits in question are today unexploited by Areva and were the subject of a massive depreciation in the accounts of the group. For lawyers who have had access to the report of the Court of Auditors, the hearing may turn to the great unpacking. Because the finding of the experts of the rue Cambon is particularly severe: « If obscure that are some adventures of the Uramin case before the courts have yet to know, it reveals the individual mistakes or breaches, not of defects in monitoring, even of concealment, admittedly difficult to appreciate but that the group, according to the available documents, has not sought to elucidate.. Branch relied on a malfunction of the governance of the group, formula too vague to close a serious case.  » The facts are such that the Court decided in February, well before its final conclusions, therefore, to make a report to the Paris Prosecutor’s office. A preliminary investigation was opened for « presentation or publication of accounts inaccurate or infidels », « dissemination of false or misleading information », « false and uses of fake » for the period 2007-2010.

Why will be launched in 2007 in such an adventure? « The context of 2006 and 2007 is a perspective of growth in the demand of uranium and the increase of prices in the world », recognized the Court. But when, from April 2007, the project to buy Uramin is presented to the EPA and the Supervisory Board, ‘ presentation of the operation is optimistic […] little doubts are issued on the interest of the acquisition  » and the ‘price, as high as is, is shared and accepted by all. The Executive Board and the services of Areva did not project in an objective manner to the Supervisory Board ». At the time, the Executive Officer of Areva – to which belonged already Luc Oursel – ensures particular to the supervisory authorities that resale of 49% of the capital of Uramin to a Chinese investor and EDF must intervene in the short term. It will never happen.

Subsequently, Areva will invest massively in its three mines, while ‘ market conditions had changed « , critical Court. From 2007 to 2011, not less than EUR 865 million will be spent, in particular on the Trekkopje deposit, in Namibia, « before even surveys geological seriously have been made ». Investments judged « hasty » by the Court because « of the lack of knowledge of the subsoil, of signals, the economic crisis and the fall in the price of uranium ». « Fed debates take place then within the Business Unit mining, between it and branch financial and with the general direction of the group, on the content of the deposits in ore, on the cost of returns mines…» », notes the Court. However, « nothing appears in the consolidated accounts 2008 and 2009, despite these uncertainties » and « the information of the governing bodies of the Group on the seriousness of the problem comes very late and too discreetly in 2010».

Between the lines, the court sees it as a kind of « forging ahead » direction: stop investments, it was to admit the failure of the operation. The Uramin case will erupt in 2011, « in a challenging non-renewal of the mandate of Anne Lauvergeon ». Provisions considerable – EUR 2 billion – are then passed in the accounts.

For the Court, it is a ‘serious’case, in which the « obscure areas remain », even if ‘the faults are difficult to identify’. The Prosecutor, he began his investigations. « The conclusions of the preliminary report of the Court of Auditors are questionable and will be challenged. I have not found the reasons that could justify the reporting to the Prosecutor of the Republic personally », replies counsel for Anne Lauvergeon, Jean-Pierre Versini-Campinchi.

The drift of large projects

That is, with years Lauvergeon Uramin, the second ‘industrial disaster’ case. And the magistrates of the Court of Auditors were naturally interested closely: ten pages of the report are devoted to « drift of the Olkiluoto EPR », the first third-generation reactor, whose construction, in Finland, no more end of filling the accounts of Areva. The opportunity to go back to the genesis of this project, which displays now seven years late and a loss at end of 3.5 billion euros for the french group. Referring to the testimony of the Finnish client TVO, the Court evokes « ready to everything to provider sell its first EPR, whose design was not yet quite advanced ». Under the international arbitration proceedings between the two parties about this construction, the same TVO « could try to show that Areva has deliberately misled it (on its readiness and its ability to build the EPR in time) and ran out of jurisdiction », continues the report.

Without actually accuse Areva of having encountered difficulties in the conduct of this complex project, in a country he knew evil, the Court considers that « these challenges could be better analysed upstream of the signature of this contract ». It also regrets that the group is not ‘able to produce technical work remaining to make reliable estimates whether their cost or the time required to complete term’. In the end, write the magistrates, ‘with the often more optimistic assumptions that the actual construction, conduct policy provisioning of Areva is characterized by a low risk anticipation’.

A clearly problematic reproach that comes up often, and became the reading of the report. Because Olkiluoto is not the only site where Areva meets difficulties. In Sweden, the contract for the extension of life expectancy and the increase in power of an old reactor has also experienced delays and engendered provisions. And in Finland again, the contract awarded for the renovation of two reactors of the Loviisa is not passed as expected: the difficulties encountered locally led there yet to litigation and the blocking of the project. The Group had « signed the contract without pointed out that it included a technical description does not match its technology », slip the drafters of the report… Two examples to the limited financial stakes, but that witness « derivatives of significant costs » on most of the major projects. For the Court, they ‘ reflect the optimism of Areva, which has underestimated the costs and time required for large-scale projects […].»  » Several of them have not stabilized completion date, taking into account the technical difficulties encountered or relations degraded with customers ‘. More generally, concludes the report, « the period under review shows the difficulty of Areva to extract contentious projects and control the services of its subcontractors. Result of weaknesses in the old procedures group and shortages in engineering capabilities that remain below the level required for the completion of projects of this complexity».

Changes in governance enterinant the end of the system with Executive Board and Supervisory Board may soon intervene.

PARIS (Reuters) – Correction of a shell

If deletions of posts are needed to redress the financial situation of Areva, it will be without dismissal, said on Wednesday the Minister of labour, François Rebsamen, on France Inter.

The french nuclear group has formalized the same day of heavy losses and announced its intention to implement a € 1bn savings plan to the year 2017.

« We will follow it closely, » said François Rebsamen, who received Monday the president of Areva, Philippe Varin. « It must surely facilitate reconciliations with EDF (…) and if there were deletions of posts, this would of course without dismissal. »

At a press conference, the CEO of Areva, Philippe Knoche, stated that the Group would everything possible that staff reductions will be on voluntary basis.

The Finnish EPR from Areva will start with nine years late
◦/ 09/2014
◦Computer graphics – The new generation of Olkiluoto 3 reactor will not operate before 2018.

Major industrial accident or inevitable derives from a large-scale project? The years pass and the horizon clears very slowly over Olkiluoto 3 (OL3), the prototype of the new generation reactor EPR being built by Areva in Finland. The Group french nuclear leader warned in the night of Sunday to Monday that the plant would not commissioning before 2018, nine years behind the initial schedule. The last elements of planning dated back to December 2011: Areva hoped then a commercial start during the second half of 2014. Since then, plagued with multiple setbacks at this construction site, the french refused to communicate any agenda.

Alongside historical landslides, the invoice has exploded: provisions have been passed not less than thirteen times, for a total amount of EUR 3.9 billion. Upon arrival, OL3 will cost at least 7.4 billion euros, more than double the original quote. In July, on the occasion of the publication of half-year results, Areva had however indicated that the drift of costs was definitely stopped.

United States Obama gives to the sirens of the billionaires

Super Pacs to fund without limit the candidates.

In the heart of America? The movement of the Tea… – Voltaire network pdf

They have approximately $ 1 billion each on average, when both parties are equal, which is not often the case, if one of the 2 parts gets more money from billionaires 2, this is fucked up, but leave on the fact, that they are equal, hhhumm!

After having denounced the derives from the financing of campaigns, the president no longer hesitate to call upon the large fortunes

Their own, candidates for presidential campaigns cost $ 2.6 billion, more than $ 1 billion each (780 million euros).

Obama relapse.

Dollars for that

G. d.: Jeffrey Katzenberg, Dreamworks president (2.1 million for Obama). Peter Thiel, co-founder of Paypal (2.6 million for Ron Paul); Sheldon Adelson, magnate of casinos (11 million to Newt Gingrich).

How many need billionaires to buy an election ? We will soon know. In all likelihood, the 2012 election will look like a pitched battle between a group of billionaires supporting president Obama and another supporting his Republican adversary. Ah, if I understand correctly, if a billionaire Republican, or Democrat, supports such or such part, suppose that Democrat obama, if

This is perhaps the inevitable result of the grotesque in 2010 judgment by the supreme court, which opened the floodgates to the flood of money dumped into super PAC [these new-fashioned political action committees can receive unlimited donations and spend it in the election campaign]. But I’m not sure. That would have happened if Obama had held out and rejected the super PAC?

Unfortunately, the president gave on 7 February. It expressed its support to the super Cap Priorities USA Action, intended to receive unlimited amounts of money from wealthy donors in support of his candidacy. And, leaving his campaign manager, Jim Messina, and close advisers to express themselves within the framework of the events organized by this super PAC, he has ignored precautions the supreme court, who had naively believed that they wouldn’t have direct links with the candidates.

Why was it done? His campaign explained that they had been surprised by the ease with which the super PAC of the candidate for the Republican nomination Mitt Romney had allowed it to win victory in the Florida primary. They also noted the fact that the super Republican PAC had spent more than the Republican candidates themselves when the first primaries. Jim Messina argued, therefore, that the democratic camp did not intend to « unilaterally disarm » by refraining to use the same method.

I do not think that the fact that Obama refuses to involve the billionaires in his campaign would have been unilateral disarmament. The Democratic president has proven that he was a champion of fundraising, especially from small donors. In 2008 he had amassed the record sum of $ 745 million [555 million euros] thanks to an unprecedented number of modest contributions, and it has already collected more than 225 million for the 2012 campaign. If Obama had persisted in his refusal to use his own super PAC, he could avail of an argument in which almost all Americans could recognize: « a larger share of wealth and political power of the nation is now in the hands of large companies and a smaller number of people that this was the case at the time of the wild capitalism of the end of the 19th century. I will not allow that our democracy is so corrupt! I will fight to restore our democracy! »

Obama could highlight the most difficult choice to which America has faced for a century: an economy and a democracy dominated by wealthy or an economy and democracy at the service of all everyone. What better way to do this except to offer to America to choose between a democratic campaign funded by millions of small donors and a Republican campaign backed by the most powerful and the most privileged?

If Obama had adopted a firm position, I am convinced that modest Americans have flooded a stream of small contributions campaign as it would have sufficed to sweep the billionaire friends of Romney. I would have given there the opportunity to the people to be heard, and he would have won. But we will never know. Now that Obama has decided to accept the super PAC, money from the rich is there flows at an unprecedented rate. And that is the problem. When a relatively small number of super-rich Democrats decide to do battle with a handful of super-rich Republicans, the vast majority of citizens is found on the button. However, if we have now departed for an election, we will tomorrow be excluded from democracy.

Note: * Former Minister of labour of Bill Clinton, Robert Reich teaches public policy at the University of California in Berkel

Black money from the American campaign

the 23.09.2012

A protester anti-Romney, March 14, 2012 in New York. REUTERS/Mike Segar.

With the blessing of the supreme court, billionaires, business and trade unions funded Romney as Obama. No limit.AH, it is for this that some Americans, fought almost, for being the Director of campaigns of X,(je m’en rappelle plus) but that said, I understand alsothe need watered people, and candidates, because the Yankees do not directly elect their candidates, they elect first, a so-called « Grand electors » and stuff, on computer, il did not easier to eatNowadays, one can simulate what you want, I understand better why the UMP wants, that votes will be by computer, even, if it is either saying unfeasible to y penettrez, LOL, and MDR

Imagine Macif, the CGT Medef and the French billionaire Liliane Bettencourt signing cheques of several million euros to support the presidential candidates and you all understand the laws of campaign finance in the United States – or rather, what remains since a decision of the supreme court’s January 2010

Cheques can be from any source, any amount and are often secret. And this isn’t a so to speak: the American billionaire Sheldon Adelson, patron of a group of casinos in Nevada, and his wife gave $ 20 million to support the candidate in the Republican primary Newt Gingrich, whose campaign was mowed., it is the Americans who see!

An organization called American Crossroads, founded by the former lieutenant of George w. Bush , Karl Rove, has spent $ 21 million in the 2010 mid-term elections. Another, Crossroads GPS, enjoys a status of organization charity « of general interest » ‘501 (c) 4’ (‘social welfare’) that allows it to escape tax and transparency rules for the traditional political parties. We know only that it received 24 checks over $ 1 million and two over 10 million dollars in 2011. Its advertisements are masterpieces of electioneering.

American campaigns have always been the most expensive in the world, but since 2010, the deregulation of campaign finance has brought the country to a bygone age in Europe, when wealthy patrons and patrons financed political parties. In the shadow or the sight of all the American billionaires let go. They throw their sights on a candidate whose they double, from one day to the next, resources to kill his opponent. For activists of transparency, it is a return to the prehistory of democracy, when the powerful exercised a corruptive power without limit. can be type: SARKO, BIGMALION, By examples

Two separate circuits

We waited not the usa, this countryside of Mitterrand, the Kang case.

Money is rubbed by two separate circuits. The face « clear » funding obeys voted an eternity ago ceilings, in 2002, at the initiative of Republican Senator John McCain and Democrat Russ Feingold – two rather deemed elected for their independence of mind, Feingold being the only Senator to be opposed to the Patriot Act a few months earlier.

Business and trade unions do not have the right to give money directly to candidates. An individual may not, him, give over a period of two years a maximum of 5,000 dollars to a candidate and 30,400 dollars to a party. Dinner with Barack Obama costs often more than 30,000 dollars (end of July, an invitation for a dinner in New York cost 80,000 dollars per couple). In France, the limit is 7,500 euros per year and per person.

The face « obscure » was born in 2010, after a decision by the supreme court on appeal by an association, Citizens United, which had been banned by the Federal Commission of elections (CEE) to broadcast an anti-Hillary Clinton spot in 2008. The Court held that the restrictions imposed on the associations, companies and trade unions against the financing of political campaigns were unconstitutional. She opened large valves of election financing.

Money spent today by entities called « super PAC » or « 501 (c) 4 », who took their magnitude after 2010:
•«Super PAC»: individuals, companies and unions are free to contribute without limit. Donations are not anonymous and should be reported to the FEC. Everything is published online. The super PACS can spend as much as they want.
•Organizations ‘501 (c) 4’: the name corresponds to the tax category of charitable organizations, for example, environmental associations, trade unions or chambers of commerce. Individuals, businesses and unions can contribute without limit. Unlike the « super PAC », these entities are not controlled by the FEC and donations are anonymous. But to continue to escape from the FEC, they must limit their political spending 50% of the total of their expenses. A limit that associations suspect some groups do not meet in practice.

Synonymous with deregulation of freedom of expression

In theory independent candidates and parties, these « super PAC » and « 501 (c) 4 » are in fact led some aides. For the 2010 mid-term elections, they spent $ 484 million —13% of the 3.6 billion spent at the national and local levels. In the most contested States, election, a viewer will see dozens of spots per day.

For the Republicans, deregulation is synonymous with freedom of expression. Why could the billionaires not speak?

Perhaps because « those who can afford to write big checks are those that elected officials will take over the phone, they will meet at the expense of normal people who do not have the means to pay this kind of access, » explains to Slate.fr Paul Ryan, a lawyer at the Campaign Legal Center, an association in Washington that advocates for more transparency in funding electoral and door complaint against groups suspected of fraud:

« In 2008, it is true, campaign spending had already been increased, but this was due to the increase of small donors to Barack Obama and John McCain. This year, for the Republican primary, some billionaires have helped some candidates remain in the race even though they could not achieve through donations of tens of millions of dollars. It is not known what role these big donors, and worse yet the companies, will be in the current campaign. In the current system, most of the activities that were illegal became legal, thanks to the supreme court. »

‘ This is not completely new, .adds Bob Biersack, who spent thirty years of his life to the FEC, today much-criticized.In the 1990s, the national parties could receive unlimited contributions, anyone, from businesses, trade unions… It was also possible for very rich people spending their own money (and in their own name) for or against certain candidates. This is what George Soros did in 2004. »

Hidden gifts and boxes

The difference is that today ‘ hui groups screens can collect millions without having to reveal their sources of funding. Some have a simple postal box address, forcing investigative journalists to a set of tracks to unmask their sources.

The major unions also benefit: one of the most powerful, SEIU, has for example financed a campaign highlighting an unfortunate phrase of Mitt Romney (« I am not worried for the poorest ») in a spot in Spanish pro-Obama (Mitt Romney explained in an interview that he wanted to focus on the middle class, believing that the very poor already had a safety net and that the rich did not need help).

Companies hide their gifts but leaks have established that the giant insurer Aetna gave $ 7 million to pro-republicains groups. The American, a highly politicized organization funded by large companies, Chamber of commerce announced that it would more money spend this season that she has never done before. Impossible to know who sends cheques.

But the impact it stronger is located in legislative district, where candidates for the Congress spend rarely more than one million dollars. This is that Karl Rove and his entities of the shadow play-makers of Kings. « You swing a few million dollars in an electoral district in a campaign for the House of representatives, and you change everything, » laments Bob Biersack.

This game, the Republicans explode meters. 73% of the advertising expenses of these new organizations have benefited the Conservatives since January.

And if you think that the Democrats are more « pure », think again. Barack Obama has him also his ‘super PAC’ Priorities USA Action, famous for its spots filled with so-called persons dismissed by Mitt Romney. The only difference is that he failed to raise as much money as wishes the president campaign.

Ivan Crown

The website opensecrets.org has an impressive database on election expenses and donations. Flackcheck.org offers a catalog of the most misleading advertising.


Published on January 3rd, 2012 | by Hélène Faure

Why are American Presidents elected by the electors?

When the Americans will vote in presidential elections, it is a form of indirect suffrage. They select the name of the candidate of their choice on their ballot, but the election does not allow them to directly elect the president; It allows them to elect the electors of a candidate. This means that the citizen would not vote for the candidate, but for a list of electors who undertake to elect the candidate.

The American election therefore occurs in three stages:
•Citizens move to vote on Tuesday following the first Monday in November.
•The Monday following the second Wednesday in December, large voters elect a president, according to the candidate who has obtained the majority of votes in their State.
•January 6, the House of representatives has the votes cast by the electoral College.

Note that the outcome of the election is known from the first step, since the vote of the electors is conditioned by the results obtained by a candidate in their State, based on the principle of winner take all (except in Maine and Nebraska). This principle means that all of the electoral votes of a State vote for the candidate who has obtained the majority of votes in that state – their vote is not proportional with the number of votes cast. Thus, it is sufficient that a candidate wins 51% of the vote in Pennsylvania to get all of its 21 electoral votes.

Who are these voters? The number of electoral votes of a State equals the number of members of Congress from that State. But it is never their own members of Congress. How they are chosen is determined by the law of the State, as well as by the rules of political parties. This is typically of Democrats and Republicans well implanted in the State apparatus of their party. Based on the results of a candidate in a State, it is the list of major Democratic voters or the list of Republican voters who will be mobilized in December. They will therefore vote for the candidate of their party.

This system has been much criticized, for several reasons. This electoral principle is the fact that the candidates are campaigning in some States, known as the swing states (State pivot), such as Ohio or Pennsylvania. Indeed, a large number of States are already acquired to the democratic cause (like California, for example) or Republican (like Texas). The winner take all system implies that it is up to the same candidate to obtain 51 or 80% of the vote, since only 51% of the vote to win all the electors. Therefore, the parties are campaigning in States that have them are acquired, since simply for the majority or in the States that they are sure to not win. This means that in many States, the campaign goes virtually unnoticed: candidates did never come there and do they not election advertising. In those same States, turnout is generally low, since victory is already provided at one of the two parties. The campaign focuses at the pivotal States where the two parties are close to 50%, and where everyone can reasonably hope to win.

This system is also a democratic problem: If the vote of the electors is correlated with the popular vote, it may happen that a candidate wins the popular vote without winning the majority of the electors. This is what happened to Al Gore in 2000.

Many proposals for amendments to the Constitution have been introduced in the House of representatives to reform the American electoral system. Why were these steps unsuccessful? Why elections are, even today, decided by the electors?

A federal system

The electoral college allows to protect small States, and protect the impact they have in the elections. Indeed, there are as many electoral votes as there are members of Congress (Senators + representatives). There are two Senators per State, regardless of the size of the State, while the number of representatives is proportional to the population of the State. This means that even the least populous state has at least two senators and a representative, or three members of Congress — three electors. The vote of a citizen has proportionately more weight in a small State in a large State. The electoral system ensures therefore sparsely populated States their voice, avoiding the candidates focus on the big States and urban centres.

The electoral system must therefore protect the voice of small States against the weight of the most populous States. But should especially protect States, taken as a whole, against the central Government. It allows each State to choose the electors in the way it sees fit, and to organize its own elections (including by determining the voice recording mode). The election of the President must therefore be decided at the State level, to avoid the federal nature of the United States is threatened by a too centralized government.

Constitutional theory underlying the indirect suffrage is as follows: the Congress would be composed of two chambers, the Senate, which would derive its power to the States (so the number of senators is the same for each State), and the House of representatives, which would derive its power to the people (the number of representatives is proportional to the population of a State). The President would meanwhile elected by a system that would take into account the States in their individuality in the same way as the people.

The cost of the campain

There is also a practical difficulty to the system change: according the U.S. federal election commission, Barack Obama would have spent more than 760 million for the 2008 campaign. If the cost of election campaigns is also high, this is due in part to the fact that should pay dearly videos broadcast on American television: there are no free airtime for clips of campaign as in France, for example.

The three most expensive markets in terms of airtime are in California, Texas and New York. However, these States are not the swing states : California and New York traditionally vote for Democrats in presidential elections, and Texas for the Republicans. They are also, incidentally, the States that have the most electors: 55 for California, 34 for Texas, 31 for New York.

If the United States were passing by direct suffrage, all States would be back in game – and in particular these three States, which are the three most populous States. Indeed, it would be more just to obtain the majority in a State, but rather to obtain the largest possible majority. This would incur costs of campaign much higher than what they are today…

An amendment to the Constitution

Added to this practical difficulty is a legal difficulty. Even if a majority of Americans favor a passage by direct suffrage according to Galluppolls, such a change would involve amending the Constitution. Indeed, it is well in article 2, section 1 of this text that described the electoral system:

The Executive power will be conferred to a president of the United States of America. It shall remain in office for a period of four years and will, as well as the vice-president chosen for the same term, elected as follows:

Each State shall appoint, in the manner prescribed by the legislature, a number of electors equal to the total number of Senators and representatives to which he is entitled to the Congress, but no Senator or representative, or any person taking the United States one burden of trust or profit, cannot be appointed elector.

However, any amendment to the Constitution must be ratified by two thirds of the representatives and two-thirds of the senators, and then by three-quarters of the State legislatures. This implies a near-consensus that the change in the electoral system is far from encourage. This is all the more true in that small States would therefore lose some of their electoral weight: from a political point of view, it is unlikely that they make this choice. The American electoral system anchored in the constitutional tradition, has already survived the crisis caused by the election of Bush in 2000; in all likelihood, he will still survive a large number of elections.

Now, I understand better why, Americans can do not directly elect their president, because the constitution was written by francs macon, not that, but most (the founding fathers gathered to the signing of the Constitution of United States..) Moreover, many fathers were members of Freemasonry.) According to the famous formula ofAbraham Lincoln (16e President of United States from 1860 to 1865), democracy is ‘ Government of the people, by the people, for the people ‘. This is one of the canonical definitions, which I think is an aberration this, as enacted, that the U.S. constitution, which is no more, nor less a barrage tuned to the way of the people, knowing, that in France and the EU for the cantonal elections (Doubs), and for the treaties of Rome, Maastricht, only soits so-called electors voting at our placeas SARKOZY has done to the Treaty of Lisbon among others. This means simply, as says JJ ROUSSEAU sovereignty cannot be represented by the same reason that it cannot be alienated; it consists essentially in the General will and the General will is point, therefore, that wants to say that the U.S. constitution is an aberration to the sovereignty of the American people, are prevented from voting, car in his book « the sources of America », Corine Lesnes, corresponding the world in Washington, talks about the origin of the electoral system. She note that in defining the political institutions at the end of the 18th century, the founding fathers « did not believe that the voice of the people was infallible »., this under heard what? that their lyrics were better, or that their voices were better that that of the people, you do not tell me that if America, this beautiful country, is in a shit , without no, that is not the fault of the masons Franks, who wrote the constitution of the United States,the famous founders, because little by little,America’s debt is such that it cannot pay, although is is his dollars will be worth nothing more,quite simply, only able to think of it, In Congress, there are 2 groups of Republican billionaires and Democrats, which pull the FLOSS multi-billion, from the other side, a head of State Democrat once and once other, Republican, (you are going to say, Yes, but a supreme court that against balance, AH Yes, it is that the supreme court can intervene, that said Congress may also intervene in the decisions of the supreme court) , article 3 of the constitution, AH!She is beautiful, balance, that is what is balanced appeal powers, it is pretty darn balance, « you know my little, I should say my great OBAMA, your thing on health, ca please not we, but then not at all, if they are well cared for, there will be fewer deaths, but you realize what this can do demographically Mr OBAMA , AH good, Ben me who believed that, BEN, not!Damage Eliane, it, it’s the balance.

Some, such as Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778), consider that democracy can be direct :  » sovereignty cannot be represented by the same reason that it cannot be alienated; It consists essentially in the General will and the General will is point. » In General, a Government is democratic as opposed to the monarchical systems on the one hand, where the power is held by a single, and on the other hand to oligarchic, systems where the power is held by a group restricted individuals,examples, billionaires, who want to make rain and good weather, but that bother with their population, and their paythat they will lose force, they want a war, I do not think this is, one war civil or otherwise, but rather economic, on which, unfortunately, they went very badly, that said, it’s me, which said ca. Definitely this JJ Rousseau was right on, the entire line

Why it is so complicated to elect an American president – Rue89…

United States of America, the constitutional system – denistouret.net

The EU Council endorse the procedure for authorisation of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) on the territory of the European Union.

| Monday, March 2, 2015 at 5:30 pm

The European Council gave its approval Monday to the new procedure for authorisation of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) on the territory of the European Union . A procedure that allows now European countries wishing to ban the cultivation of GMOs in them. Conversely, this should allow those wishing to get out of the current deadlock. NOT COOL at all, it will grown in Romania, example, and we will sell the products, in France, Germany and others, in countries, which do not want, it is force the hand to the countries, who do not want, when is that it breaks from those mentally ill, ca, spanking, Act macron, this Act of GMOs, they really want , fluff us, no matter what, strongly, that it breaks

The cause of the debt of France, it is the Rothschild law May 15, 2010 20:03

We are one
Langue source

Alors ,ne sachant plus ,quoi ,inventer ,MARISSOL TOURAINE et VALLS (oui ,je dis VALLS parce que l’on se doute bien ,qu’elle n’y a pas pensé toute seule) ,ils nous remettent sur le tapis ,le paquet neutre et le médicament unique pour emmerder le monde sachant pertinemment ,que cela ne fera pas avancés d’un poil ,le schmiblick et que l’on n’en veut pas ni de l’un

le 04032015 AL

Hallo ihr alle

http:// creachmichelblog.wordpress.com/ Französisch, Englisch

http:// creachmichel2014.wordpress.com Italienisch, Spanisch

http:// lebretonblog.WordPress.com / Englisch, Deutschland

Putin nicht Certe ein Engel, aber auf jeden Fall, ich weiß, dass er nicht wie Faschismus, und bitten alle, das ist ukrainische Soldaten selbst, aufhören, denn « er wollte nicht zum Zeichnen auf ihre (das ukrainische Volk) wie stoppen und schießen nach vor kurzem ein Gesetz (1 Monat, ca.) ich glaube, das ca

Wind-Gruppe oder versammelten Volk gegen die Belästigung von Windkraftanlagen, viele Menschen, ist Aufstieg und ihre Schilde zu steigen, weil unter dem berühmten Vorwand gut zu wissen, der stellvertretender Präfekt und / oder, der Chairman des Board-Lebensmittel von X, (übergeben, wird dafür eine Dkpande von 100 bis 200 €000) und die Vorwand-Puan und rein Stammensfürsten, ja, aber es ist umweltfreundlich , ist das einzige Wort in « Ique » sie wissen, Photovoltaik ‘Ique’ es auch formuliert, zwischen Ordnung 5 Boards und 5 Turbinen, ich bevorzugte Reihenfolge 5 Wind, entweder 1 Turbine der Preis für eine Wind-Turbine-Offshor schwankt zwischen 2 und 4 Millionen Euro pro installierte MW, nehme ich in, 5x3millions = 15 Millionen €, wenn ich nicht gierig, gehen 10%,soit1.5million€, BEN… was! ich dient mir , M2 Sonnenkollektor Kosten beträgt durchschnittlich 1000 €., nicht interessant,Roger, du bist schön, du sagst bei p ‘ tite Lady, ich nehme ihm sein Gelände (, puisqu ein Fait Les Essais Depuis plus d ‘ un ein) pour40 000, Oo € und großzügige Chuis, gehen 45 €000,00 es ist gut, denn wir die Tests haben, und das du für mich getan haben , aber nachdem ich bekomme, du bringst mich um den Hals nicht, aber ehrlich gesagt Herren Damen, Nr. wie, zu viel zu sagen. !!!

Den Stachel des Windes: die Plünderung des Frankreich. – Synthese – Polemia Ruinous für die Nation, aber äußerst nützlich bei der Anzahl von Interesse bestimmte, katastrophale Folgen für die Handelsbilanz, Zerstörer unserer Landschaften, nicht sogar wahrscheinlich zur Verringerung der CO2-Emissionen, gebaut in der Regel nur auf die Lügen, Sterilisator echte Fortschritte, die massive Entwicklung der Windenergie in Frankreich ist ein Skandal der Anthologie. Von Jean Germain, Indre-et-Loire und stellvertretender Vorsitzender des Finanzausschusses im Senat-Senator (PS) .

Was diese Scheiße ist das sagen hat, muss es geben, Fesser, dezidiert, Bruxelle, weiß mehr was um zu tun, um uns verpissen, Sorge, Sie machen uns, Le, nicht lange, ist das, Frage ich Sie, wenn Sie richtig pissen

Der Trawler Bugaled breizh , Unterwasser, oder nicht, GaG, ich sagte GAG, schlecht, aber GAG, weil sie weiß, wer die Täter sind (Pourquoi, Vous Allez mich ernst, Sous Les 2 Marins Étaient Qui Ont Peut Être Percutés le Chalut, et Pris Les Filins (– Spuren Découvertes) im Bereich, und anscheinend die 2 u-Boote, angeblich beschädigt, was repariert wurde, sobald der Arbeitsunfall stattgefunden hat) , kann 1 Zazard, aber in 40 Jahren der Zazards gab, die glauben, sie waren angeblich mehr, aber, leider, es ist bewiesen, Sie waren sich bewusst, Vorsicht, weil, wann ist Ra am helllichten Tag, ist es wenn Ra zu spät, es ist bekannt, dass mindestens 2 u-Boote beteiligt sind, was weh tut, meine Herren Damen, die Niederländer (es) , und der royal Navy, es ist eine maritime Unfall, es passiert, und vor allem auf dem Meer Segler nicht im Widerspruch stehen, aber das ist P-T-N Jahre, schließen den Mund und das ist die Angst vor ein Verbrechen gestanden, sich verbricht alle Aufnahmen, von wem, bezeichnet, da in 10 Jahren tut mir sagte nicht, dass Sie keine Zeit hatten, wenn jede die BB gibtfür eine Geschichte des großen Geldes, Versicherungen oder sonst, aber das sagte wenn es ist, war Sie nicht überraschend, wir hören von sehr weitem, Kritiker, ich hoffe, mit freundlichen Grüßen, dass Counsel für die bürgerlichen Partei, die die Attraktivität für nicht-Bestellung im Jahr 2014 ablehnten, das lebt und auch sonst das Schicksal dieser Familie.

Was ist komisch, aber ehrlich gesagt ist es pissing, es ist mehr als ein Jahr (Ich erinnere mich nicht), aber lange, was sind ihre (Holland, Valls) erfordern klar, weil sie vertreten uns, und nicht nur das sind wirklich dumm und stur, und außerdem, ich weiß nicht, woher diese stinkenden Ideen kommen wenn es Brüssel ist, Valls oder ‘ Holland für Letzteres, würde es mich überraschen!(mit dem IQ einer Ziege, ist es mehr schwer eine fühlt sich das Gehirn krank, Schizoparnoiapschomaconnique, diese Ideen her wenn diese Herren/Damen oder Damen, die ganz einfach, kurz gesagt, ich weiß, die meisten denken, die Frankreich zerstören durch Ausnutzung der Französisch, wie sie seit 40 Jahren getan haben sind sie Gourrent, allerdings lacht, wer zuletzt lacht.)Dahin Gefühl zunehmend ökonomische (okay, ich habe es gut geschrieben) ich merke, das,Nein, nur Abrutir unsere Kinder mit Cannabis und anderen , haben Sie nicht genug

Nicht bombardiert und Muslime zu töten (GAZA),Muslime gedemütigt (NOT IN MY NAME) und vor kurzem(218 Millionen für Straftaten, die begangen wurde zwischen 2001 und 2006, denke ich, ich bin nicht bei,) (mit EI und BOKO HARAM u.a.)die ganze Welt getäuschtsie wollen wieder, dass Muslime den Kohl mit der französischen nehmen, für die Geschichte des Schleiers, ist das kein, zu wissen, dass die Frankreich Bekenntnisse ist Katholiken seit + konnte, aber zu wissen, dass die Franzosen, wie in Belgien Regierung , außer dem König, möglicherweise ist FRANC-MACON, die Tatsache, die Muslime und Katholiken auf die Kurstaats klopfen anordnen ihrer Geschichte wie diese, sie werden Muslime Gutscheine für loswerden, und Cathos, idem, sie ist nicht schön Fall 2 für den Preis von einem, und so auch, wir können immer sagen wollten, daß die Kriege, lange, Déjà (Rappelez Vous Les Mots de Eric ZEMMOUR, Je Ne m’ en daran plus Textuellement, Mais c ‘ est un Peu, Comme Cela  », c ‘ est Une Guerre Civile Larvée », Valls et BRUXELLE, (BRUXELLE))wie sie es sieht, wird die linke, BOUBOU, BOUBOU, BOUUUUHHHH, SNIFFF, Scheiße…VOLL die PIF, ich wäre der Griechenland, Portugal und anderen, ich würde das gleiche tun, es gibt ein Sprichwort, das sagt, ich weiß nicht, ob es ist Französisch, aber egal, er sagte,besser allein manchmal sein, als schlecht begleitet

Herren Damen, die Freimaurer-Franken, ich bin mir sicher, dass unter euch gibt es aufrichtige Menschen und ausgezeichnete in Ihrem Bereich, liegen, ist ihre Unterseite von Handel und dies ist was sie tun, leider, auch und vor allem, ich bin mir sicher, es gibt Menschen, die aussprechen, denn gelogen hat, Sie arbeiten in einer Bank, weil Sie Informatiker waren, oder, Ingenieur, Absolventen einer High School in kurzen, Sie Representiez an Interesse., aber es hat alle wissen nur eins, wenn diese Scheiße, sie sind es, was du tust, es wird deine Schuld, auf der anderen Seite, wenn alles glatt läuft, ist es dank ihnen


Das Rothschild-Manifest – circa 1840? | 2012: Was hat die… übersetzen in die Sprache des SENCO

(1) das Gesetz ist die Kraft, die verkleidet Nutzungsrecht. (Recht, Codes, Verordnungen)

2. politische Freiheit ist eine Idee, keine Tatsache und ist nur eine Illusion und Ablenkung.

3. verwenden Sie « Liberalismus » Kontrolle durch « GRADUALISMUS » durch « Bildung ». (OBE)

4. Regierungen müssen vernichtet werden, indem entweder extern (Krieg) oder intern (Liberalismus und Korruption).

Mit freundlichen Grüßen, Ihre kleine Gemeinheit Manigance, Tiere, und böse, waren ziemlich letzten, Sie wissen ganz genau das einfach für die Bevölkerung durch Stellvertreter, wie Sie, und als Sie und sicherlich euer schließen auch EH ja, Herren Damen, es ist eine Krankheit, die MYTHOMANIA (bei Patienten mit psychischen Störungen wird die übermäßige liegen häufig angezeigt. Einzelpersonen mit antisozialen Persönlichkeitsstörung., daher der Abgeordneten, die in Ihrem Spiel gesehen haben in Anspruch nehmen, da die 459.3 zu verwenden, Sie wissen ganz genau, dass wenn du das getan hast, bedeutet dies, als ¾, siehe, alle mit Ausnahme von 2 oder 3), (Je Crois Que Vous Étiez 3) waren gegen Sie, d. h. Quevous Sommer

weit davon entfernt, die Frankreich darstellt.

AH, zu sehen, dass er (Valls) gegrillt ist, Archie, er will, fügen Sie uns die Leche-Pumpe zunächst gesagt, ich sagte CAZENEUVE, wer eine Verjüngungskur unterzogen wird, (Ich weiß, ich weiß, es ist schlimm, aber es war notwendig, dass ich einen Reim finden.)Charts : Rue de la Roquette, Tod von Rémi Fraisse SIVENS, nicht abgehängt, nichts, Nada, Macache Jason, normal, frank Mason, als das Kind von der kongolesischen Diplomat (Raps), sollte es auch, ich denke, in Rennes, gewalttätige Demonstrationen (Schläger, Mmhhhouai…!) Veranstaltungen im Juli 2014pour Gaza-Streifen


Ich denke, Benjamin Netanyahou schön machen seine übertriebene Höflichkeit zu den Republikanern und alles

Insbesondere Queens, fast alle was! dass früher oder später wird nichts ändern, die Iran Atombombe, und mehr werden, alle so dass es nicht hat es schneller, es haben es, die mich zum Lachen macht, ist, dass es in Verteidiger der Rechte der Juden geht, dann ist das wegen ihm, wenn Israel nicht mehr findet seinen Platz in dieser Welt, was er tat vor und zur Zeit was es verursacht hat, es ist im Gegenteil, es wird Berichten, aber leider es ist getan, ich glaube wirklich, dass einige gehen, die Finger zu beißen, und es wäre schade, wenn noch kein Land außer den Usa ihr Vertrauen hat und das Embargo, das ihn auf einigen Ländern setzen, zu ihm zurückzukehren, in vollen Kater

Sitz in Großbritannien HSBC Bank stimmt Schweiz Tochter helfen Kunden Dodge Steuern


Moskau, HSBC Bank (Sputnik)–mit Sitz in Großbritannien räumte ein, dass die Schweizer Tochtergesellschaft hat dazu beigetragen, Kunden ausweichen Steuern und Millionen von Vermögenswerten zu verbergen.

« Wir erkennen und sind verantwortlich für die Einhaltung und Kontrolle Fehler », sagte HSBC in einer Anweisung in Reaktion auf Unterlagen International Consortium of investigative von der französischen Le Monde Zeitungsjournalisten erhalten.

Sonntag veröffentlichten Dokumente enthalten Daten aus mehr als 100 000 Kunden der Bank von überall in der Welt, die das Geld in die Schweizer Tochtergesellschaft gespeichert hat. Aufzeichnungen zeigen, dass HSBC unterrichtet hat, einige seiner Kunden auf wie Konten gemeldet und Dienstleistungen für internationale Verbrecher ausgeblendet.

Dokumente, die Offenlegung von Daten über Konten mit mehr $ 120 Milliarden Vermögen gelten als das größte Leck in der Bankgeschichte.Die Daten wurde von einem Computerfachmann gestohlen, Genfer Büro von HSBC in 2007 und 2010, Behörden Französisch gearbeitet, die die Dateifreigabe mit dem internationalen Revenue Service erworben.

Als Reaktion auf die Enthüllungen sagte HSBC, die Anzahl der Konten in ihrer Bank Schweiz aus 30 412 in 2007 auf 10 343 im Jahr 2014, als die Bank Rose mit den Behörden kooperiert um Steuerhinterziehung zu untersuchen. Jedoch sagte HSBC, obwohl sie versucht, die Untersuchung helfen, Bereitstellung von Clientdaten an ausländische Behörden eine strafbare Handlung nach schweizerischem Recht.

« Große Regulierungsreform läuft in vielen Ländern um… sicherzustellen, dass in der Zukunft, eine Person, die »die Vermögen der Steuerverwaltung ausblenden »werden nicht in der Lage zu tun. » HSBC begrüßt und unterstützt diese Reformen, « HSBC sagte in einer Erklärung.

HSBC ist die zweitgrößte Bank der Welt und hat seinen Hauptsitz in London. Es hat ein internationales Netzwerk von 6 200 Büros in 74 Ländern, rund 52 Millionen Kunden zu seinem Service.

Neues Britisches Gesetz sah Banker wegen Beihilfe zur Steuerhinterziehung angeklagt

Um das Land für den Einsatz im Vereinigten Königreich stellen Dateien ein Leck HSBC Finanzberater zu verfolgen

Der Hauptsitz von HSBC in Canary Wharf, London.Foto: Simon Dawson/Bloomberg

Dienstag, 24. Februar 2015, 01:14

Die britische Regierung ist in der Nähe ein Abkommen mit den französischen Behörden, die es ihm ermöglicht, mithilfe von Leck zuvor Bank Schweiz Dateien zur Verfolgung von Bankern und Beratern, entsprechend der britische Schatzkanzler George Osborne.

Zehntausende von Seiten mit Daten aus dem Arm Privatbank in Zürich von HSBC durch einen Informanten in London im April 2009 von Frankreich, sondern seine Verwendung wurde eingeschränkt, um die Jagd für unbezahlte steuern.

Allerdings, sagte Mr. Osborne House Of Commons « schreckliche », von der letzten Labour-Regierung unterzeichnete Abkommen wurde neu verhandelt wird, um sicherzustellen, dass die Informationen an das Büro des betrug ernst und andere Staatsanwälte weitergeleitet werden konnte.

Die konservativ-liberale Demokratische Koalition sollte einen neuen Straftatbestand der Komplizenschaft in Betrug und aggressive Steuerumgehung im Haushaltsplan nächsten Monat – Ende in das aktuelle Parlament.Inzwischen erscheint Präsident der HSBC Douglas Flint und Frames Vorgesetzten und HM Revenue & Customs vor Westminster einflussreiche Treasury Select Committee Morgen, dass es das Verhalten der Schweizer Bank Arm untersucht.

Bis zu 100 000 Kunden erhalten Beratung von der Bank. Einige 3 000 britischen Namen erhielten von « Whistleblower » Hervé Falciani, die Behörden nach, dass er die Informationen in 2008 gestohlen hat.


Seitdem wurden mehr als 1 000 der britischen Namen untersucht, von HM Revenue and Customs, führt zur Zahlung von £ 150 Millionen Steuern – wenn Kritiker die Entscheidung nicht nur eine Person in das Gericht Anklagen in Frage gestellt.

Der Verlauf der Auseinandersetzungen, die HSBC in das Lager zwischen Mr. Osborne und der Arbeit Schatten Kanzler, Ed Balls, mit Herrn Kugeln dominiert wurde weithin als zweite am besten in den Bezirken gekommen.

Unterdessen berichtete HSBC gestern fortgesetzt werden, wenn die Bank UK aufgeführt Gewinne vor Steuern von $ 18,7 Milliarden im vergangenen Jahr oder 17 % der Bhaskar $22,6 für 2013 und unter den Erwartungen deutlich.

Senior HSBC kam unter Druck von Aktionären, Politiker und Unternehmer, von einigen ihrer Multi-Millionen-Pfund-Boni als Reaktion auf die jüngsten Vorwürfe abzuweichen, dass die Bank Kunden, die Steuern hinterziehen unterstützt laut der Financial Times.

Der Chief Executive Officer des Unternehmens, klagte Stuart Gulliver , dass Banken derzeit in « höher als die militärischen, kirchlichen oder öffentlichen Dienstleistungsstandards » sind.

« Kann ich wissen, dass jeder von 257 000 Menschen kann ich eindeutig nicht.  » Wenn Sie möchten die Frage zu stellen, es nie wieder – passieren könnte dies nicht zumutbar ist, « sagte Herr Gulliver, die in der Vergangenheit banker’s Best wurde bezahlt in der Welt. »

Herr Gulliver, behält seine offshore-Einkommen und Kapitalgewinne von der UK Tax net, weil es ist Wohnsitz Steuern in Hong Kong, auch wenn seine Position in London beheimatet ist.

Die Bank jedoch sagte: « da entweder in das Vereinigte Königreich aus Hong Kong im Jahr 2003 erliegt, weniger eine Gutschrift für die Steuer bezahlt darüber hinaus nach Hong Kong (wo er auch steuerlich ansässig ist) auf diesem Teil des gleichen Lohn doppelt besteuert, Herr Gulliver geschenkt volle UK Steuern auf sein Einkommen in der Welt.  »CEO HSBC montiert eine Panama Firma im Jahr 2007 auf die Firma Boni zu speichern, da das Computersystem der Bank so prekär war, dass die Führungskräfte in der Lage waren zu wissen, wie viele andere Bonus hatte.

« Absolut nichts was Stuart getan hat ist nichts mehr als rechtliche, transparent und kompatibel. » Ihre Steuerangelegenheiten seit jeher transparent für mich und das Board und es gibt keine Geschichte hier, sagte der Präsident der Bank, Douglas Flint.


ICIJ Analyse zeigte, dass fast 2 000 HSBC-Kunden, die in Dateien stehen die Diamantenindustrie zugeordnet sind. Unter ihnen ist Longboat-Emmanuel, die Folge des Verkehrs mit Blutdiamanten schuldig war.

Blutdiamanten oder Konfliktdiamanten, sind Begriffe, die für die Edelsteine ausgenutzt in Kriegsgebieten, die dann verkauft werden, um andere Krieg zu finanzieren. Diamanten abgebaut während der jüngsten Bürgerkriege in Angola, Côte d ‘ Ivoire, Sierra Leone und anderen Nationen erhielt die Bezeichnung.

« Diamanten haben eine lange Geschichte der Verbindung zur den Konflikt und Gewalt », sagte Michael Gibb der internationalen Global Witness -Menschenrechte-Gruppe. « Es ist erstaunlich, die Leichtigkeit, mit denen Diamanten werden Werkzeuge des Krieges, umgebaut können wenn Sie nicht nicht verantwortungsvoll.  »

Die Dokumente zeigen, dass HSBC bewusst, dass Herr Longboat durch die belgischen Behörden untersucht wurde, zu einem Zeitpunkt war, wo er ihm geholfen. « Wir haben eine Firma in Dubai ansässige Konto eröffnet. … Der Client ist sehr vorsichtig sein, denn unter dem Druck der belgischen Finanzbehörden seine Tätigkeit auf dem Gebiet der Steuerbetrug Diamanten untersuchen. »

Beraten Sie, denn Herr Longboat ICIJ sagte, « wir [SIC] nicht wollen, geben Sie einen Kommentar zu diesem Thema zeigen. Mein Mandant will nicht seinen Namen in einem Artikel aus Gründen der Vertraulichkeit. »

Andere HSBC-Kontoinhaber können verbunden werden, um Diamanten, Omega, die im Jahr 2013 zu einer Geldstrafe von $ 195 Millionen wegen Steuerhinterziehung in Belgien verurteilt wurde. Das Unternehmen hat beschlossen, die Strafe nicht bezahlen aber nicht zugeben, Haftung. Die belgischen Behörden behaupteten, Omega, Gewinne in Dubai verschoben, um den Austausch von fälschlich kostbaren Diamanten aus Minen im Kongo und Angola.

Den Zeitraum dieser angeblichen Transaktionen, zwei Direktoren der Firma, Ehud Arye Laniado und Sylvain Goldberg , hatten jeweils die HSBC-Konten. Ein Dritter Direktor Omega, The Robert Liling, erscheint in den Akten als Besitzer mehrerer Accounts.

Herr Liling konnte für eine Stellungnahme nicht erreichbar. Ein Sprecher für MrLaniado und Mr. Goldberg sagte, die wegen Steuerstraftaten verfolgt wurde. « Omega Diamanten-die belgische Steuer Verwaltung Steuer Streit war beigelegt außergerichtliche zivilen. »

Links für Al-Qaida?

Links von Kunden von HSBC und Al-Qaeda wurden öffentlich im Juli 2012 erhöht US-Senat Bericht, der eine angebliche Liste interner Al Qaeda finanziellen Wohltätern zitiert.

Der Bericht des Senats, sagte, dass die Liste nach einer bosnisch-Suche der Büros der Benevolence International Foundation , eine Non-Profit, entstanden Sitz in Saudi Arabien, Vereinigte Staaten Finanzministerium als Terrororganisation bezeichnet hat.

Osama bin Laden, das Mastermind hinter der Angriffe vom 11. September, als die handschriftliche Liste der 20 Namen « goldene Kette » bezeichnet.

Sobald die Namen auf der Liste der goldenen Kette in den Nachrichten im Frühjahr 2003 veröffentlicht wurden, sagte der Senat-Unterausschuß, dass HSBC « bei Notice » und diese leistungsstarke Umsätze hohes Risiko-Kunden wussten.

Obwohl die Bedeutung der Liste der goldenen Kette da in Frage gestellt wurde, fand die ICIJ scheinbar drei Namen der Goldkette mit HSBC Konten Schweiz die nach diesem Zeitpunkt existierte.

Interpol -Liste

Personen auf der Liste der Most Wanted von Interpol, der internationalen Polizeibehörde, zum Beispiel wenn Händler in Diamanten Mozes Victor König und Kenneth Lee Akselrod, gehören zu den Kontoinhabern HSBC – und daher Elias Murr , wer ist Präsident des Rates von Interpol für eine sicherere Welt Foundation, einer Organisation zur Bekämpfung von Terrorismus und organisierter Kriminalität. Murr, der einen prominenten Geschäftsmann war, bevor er in die Politik, war Innenminister des Libanon im Jahr 2004 während der Anmeldung HSBC die Eigenschaft durch eine Firma namens Callorford war Investments Limited. 2006-2007 würde das Konto $ 42 Millionen enthalten.

Ein Sprecher von Murr, Reichtum an seinen Klienten und seiner Familie ist weithin bekannt, und seine Familie gehaltenen Konten in der Schweiz seit vor seiner Geburt. Das Konto wurde nicht mit seiner politischen Rolle verknüpft. « Es ist nicht illegal, und es wird nicht vermutet, dass ein libanesischer Staatsangehöriger öffnet und die Konten überall verwaltet. »

Super reiche und Prominente in der Steuer Dodge Sturm HSBC: Datei Leck Funke behauptet, dass das Bank-Star verwendet, um Bargeld zu verstecken
•Die Konten zeigen virtuelle Promi, dass vermögende Kunden
•100 000 Bewertungen Dokumente, einschließlich 9 000 in Großbritannien übermittelt wurden, mitgeteilt
•David Bowie, Joan Collins und Elle Macpherson unter der ernannten
•Es ist nicht illegal, halten ein Konto Schweiz – nur verwendet werden, um Steuern zu umgehen
•Es gibt keine Hinweise darauf vorliegen, dass es nichts Illegales beteiligten Promis

10. Februar 2015

Hollywood-Stars, Legenden der Musik und prominente Geschäftsleute wurden offenbart gestern fand statt mit HSBC Schweizer geheime Konten – wie die Bank vorgeworfen wird, helfen die Superreichen zahlen Steuern zu vermeiden.

Leckage der Dateien der Bank ergab einer virtuellen Berühmtheit, dass Tausende von wohlhabenden Kunden, die geheime Konten, einschließlich Sänger David Bowie, Tina Turner und Phil Collins und die Schauspielerin Joan Collins geführt.

Die Dateien führte zu Anklagen Arm der HSBC Private Bank hatte der Schweizer Konten für vermögende Kunden, so dass einige Millionen Pfund in Konten nicht deklarierte’schwarz’ zu verstecken und vermeiden, zahlen Steuern in ihrem Herkunftsland, aggressiv vermarktet.

Scroll down für video

Leck: Tausende Kunden von HSBC erschienen, Elle Macpherson (rechts), deren Anwälte sagte, dass es « die UK-Steuer auf der Grundlage der vollständigen Offenlegung gemäß den Rechtsvorschriften des Vereinigten Königreichs berücksichtigt ». David Bowie (Links mit Frau Iman), auch ernannt wurde, sagte, dass er in der Schweiz geneigt ist, weil er dort gelebt

Details: Kontodaten floh mit Arm des Swiss Banking der HSBC mit dem Namen Joan Collins und Christian Slater

Die Aufzeichnungen über die Bank – mit weiteren Angaben 100 000 Kunden weltweit, darunter 8 844 im Vereinigten Königreich – gestohlen wurden im Jahr 2007 von Hervé Falciani, ein Experte in der Informatik für die Bank in Genf arbeiten. Falciani, 43, glaubt sie als « Informant », weil er wusste, dass Steuerhinterzieher die Bank verwendet wurden. Er floh nach Frankreich und gab Datensätze an die Behörden.

Panorama Programm erklärte gestern auf BBC1, die größte Bank von Großbritannien unter den wohlhabenden Kunden geholfen hatte das Land Millionen von Pfund an Steuern zu betrügen.

Es ist nicht illegal, einen Schweizer Bankkonto zu haben, aber es ist illegal, ein geheimes Konto verwenden, um Vermögenswerte zur Vermeidung der Zahlung von Steuern auszublenden. Es gibt keine Anregung von jegliches Fehlverhalten von Prominenten, die als Sparkonten genannt.

Die Enthüllungen haben einen bedeutenden politischen Streits gestern veranlasst, nachdem sich herausstellte, das der Präsident der Bank zum Zeitpunkt, Stephen Green, jetzt Herr Grün, später Minister in der Regierung von David Cameron ernannt wurde.

Popstars-Bowie, Turner und Phil Collins und Formel 1-Star Fernando Alonso sagte, dass sie in der Schweiz, Bank, weil sie dort gelebt. Es gibt keine Anzeichen dafür ein, dass jeder von ihnen an illegalen Steuerpraktiken beteiligt sind.

Buchhaltung der Schauspielerin Joan Collins sagte, dass es voll mit 2011 HM Revenue & Customs Kontrolle, die feststellt zusammen war, dass es keine zusätzliche Steuer sollte.

Andere Namen enthalten Schauspieler Christian Slater und Fußballspieler Diego Forlan.Ils nicht auf Anfragen für Kommentar geantwortet hat.

Skandal: Schweiz HSBC Bank, abgebildet in Genf, ermöglichte es seinen Kunden, Ziegelsteine von Bargeld zu entfernen, können Kunden, schwarze « schwarze Konten » zu verbergen und gab Konten der Kriminelle und korrupte Geschäftsleute

Steuerliche Ansprüche HSBC: CPS sorgfältig Bewertungen der

Anwälte für Top Model Elle Macpherson, eine andere Berühmtheit auf der Liste, sagte: « Frau Macpherson ist ein australischer Staatsbürger, die UK-Steuer auf der Grundlage der vollständigen Offenlegung gemäß den Rechtsvorschriften des Vereinigten Königreichs berücksichtigt ».

HSBC, mit Sitz in London, sagte seine Schweizer Niederlassung wurde nicht umfassend in HSBC nach dem Erwerb im Jahr 1999 erlaubt ‘deutlich’ von Compliance und Due Diligence. Er sagte, er nahm « wichtige Schritte » zur Verbesserung der Sicherheit und Reform.

An einem Tag der dramatischen Entwicklungen:
•Gegenseitig Beschuldigten Politiker und HMRC zu unterlassen, auf die angebliche Steuerhinterziehung verbunden auf die Konten.
•Erforderliche Arbeit gibt Gesicht Lord Green auf sein Wissen über das angebliche Fehlverhalten bei der Bank, während Präsident er war.
•Schatten-Minister fordert die Regierung zu sagen, was überprüft wurden vor der Ernennung von Herrn Grün als Minister für Handel durchgeführt.
•Cousin der Königin, Prinz Michael von Kent und seine Frau wurden mit einem « inaktiv »-Konto verknüpft. Sie leugnen, dass das Geld auf dem Konto immer stattgefunden hat.
•Magnat Richard Caring einen Zweig von Genf von der Bank im Jahr 2005 besucht und zog £ 2,25 Millionen in Bar; eine Transaktion unmarkiert nach oben von HSBC.
•Ein Freund von Prinz Charles, war Gast auf der Hochzeit von Prinz William, Kate Middleton wurde aufgedeckt Millionen investiert haben.

HSBC hat zugegeben, daß einige Kontoinhaber hatte ausgenutzt von den Regeln des Bankgeheimnisses halten nicht deklarierte Konten, aber sie « grundlegend verändert hatte », sagte seine Systeme.

Besucher hätten « Steine » von Bargeld, die Konten in der Schweiz ein Steuerparadies, zog effektiv so, dass sie das Geld in ihrem Herkunftsland zu nehmen, ohne an die Steuerbehörden zu deklarieren.

Prinz und Prinzessin Michael von Kent (fotografiert zusammen letztes Jahr) gehörten als holding geheime Schweizer Konten genannt. Der Account wurde « inaktiv » und sie leugnen, dass Geld auf dem Konto noch festgehalten wurde

Beamte bei HMRC wurden die Daten in 2010 nach einer Untersuchung in Frankreich geleckt und schaute sich 1 000 Fällen gehalten, £ 135 Millionen in Steuern, Zinsen und Strafen zu erholen.

Aber der Vorsitzende des Ausschusses der öffentlichen Finanzen, Labour MP Margaret Hodge, befragt die Gründlichkeit der Untersuchung von HMRC.

Sie sagte: « Ich glaube nicht, dass die Steuerbehörden, stark genug, sehr autoritär, hart genug gewesen sein. »

Es wirft auch Fragen auf Wissen von Herrn Grün des Skandals, sagen: « Entweder er wußte nicht, und er war asleep at the Wheel, oder er kannte und dann hat er deshalb an fragwürdige Steuerpraktiken beteiligt. »

Herr Green lehnte eine Stellungnahme, sagt der Wächter: « Als eine Frage des Prinzips, ich nicht kommentieren die Angelegenheiten der HSBC, vorbei an oder präsentieren. »

Steuerinspektor alte Richard Brooks erzählte Panorama: « Ich denke, dass sie [HSBC] ein Dienst Steuerflucht und Steuerhinterziehung. » Ich denke, das ist, was die geboten.

« sie wussten auch, dass Menschen, um sie kamen in ihren steuerlichen Verpflichtungen ausweichen.

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Spycables: Revelations about the outrageous actions of the Mossad and MI6, the CIA

Published by wikistrike.com on February 27, 2015, 09:48 am

Categories: International #Politique

Since Monday, Al Jazeera and The Guardian published documents that would come from the South African intelligence agency, in which are detailed the actions of several secret service as Mossad, MI6 or the CIA.

Are we at the dawn of a scandal of great magnitude on bottom of espionage, even more resounding than those of Wikileaks, after the revelations of Al-Jazeera baptized « Spycables »? Although it is too early to judge their geopolitical impact, content of documents, published since Monday by the Qatari news channel and the British newspaper The Guardian, nevertheless proves to be extremely sensitive about the opaque actions of the secret service British, Israeli and American.

These documents classified as « defence secrecy » would come from the SSA, the Agency South Africa information and contain notes and detailed conversations that the latter was able to maintain between 2006 and 2014, with his counterparts from the Mossad, MI6 and the CIA.

The authenticity of these information and especially the origin of the leaks are still a mystery, but the case begins to make loud noise in South Africa where the Government has decided to open an investigation . Focus on the main revelations.

The links between South Africa and the Iran

Among the multitude of topics referred to by the disclosed documents, the Iran-South Africa relations occupy a place of choice. We learn that the Iranians allegedly tried to approach the South African Government, in order to circumvent the sanctions and embargo inflicted to them by the Western powers. ‘Cables-spies’ claim that Iranian officials have met Thabo Mbeki (President of the Republic of South Africa from 1999 to 2008) on two occasions in 2005, to get help for their nuclear program. As reported African News24 colleagues, documents are thus refers to a meeting between Thabo Mbeki and an Iranian delegation, led by a certain « Mr Rowhani » (which could be the current Iranian president Hassan Rohani), during which the Iran asked technological and logistical support to its interlocutors.

Other notes reveal also how British MI6 and other intelligence services, including those of the Americans, have exerted pressure on South Africa to prevent sale in Iran of equipment to produce nuclear-tipped ballistic missiles. The United States reportedly also forced South Africa to spy on the Iranian activities observed in its territory. While refusing to consider Iran as a threat, the South African secret services would have obeyed, drawing up a detailed list of the many covers -including the import of Persian carpet trade – used by Iranian nationals identified as intelligence agents.

When the CIA sought to contact Hamas

Another revelation and not least, this surprising maneuver of the CIA, which allegedly tried in the summer 2012 to return in contact with Hamas, classified on the list of terrorist organizations in the United States since 1997. In order to contact the « Islamic resistance movement » Palestinian, which controls the Gaza Strip, the CIA would have sought the help of South Africa. An agent of the Central Intelligence Agency would have met a South African intelligence officer for the U.S. intentions, namely dialogue with Hamas or recruit agents in the Gaza enclave. The choice of a South African middleman is anything but harmless when you know the links maintained by the country and the Palestinian organizations, Hamas and Fatah, since the end of apartheid.

The two officers would meet in East Jerusalem, « in the middle of violent clashes between Hamas and Israeli forces ». According to a note dated 29 June and sent to Pretoria, the CIA agent was ready to everything to fit within Hamas and wanted if possible help from the SSA. The South African spy also stated that if adventure the SSA was able to establish this link, it might benefit.

Asked about these manoeuvres by the Guardian, a spokesman for the CIA simply stated that the Agency supported  » «  » effort by the U.S. Government to fight against international terrorism through the collection, analysis and dissemination of information » . And the person concerned to add that these activities were carried out « in accordance with the constitution ». Finally, still on the subject between the United States and Palestinians, a note of November 2012 learned us that U.S. president Barack Obama had « threatened » Mahmoud Abbas by phone (without however clarified the nature of the threats), while the Palestinian Authority was about to get observer status at the UN.

Netanyahu disavowed by the Mossad in 2012 on Iranian nuclear

Remember, the scene marked the audience of the General Assembly of the United Nations. September 27, 2012, Benjamin Netanyahu had stated, schema to support (pictured below), that the Iran was about to develop atomic weapons. « Israeli Prime Minister had so assured that from the summer 2013, »at the latest », Tehran would need that from » a few months or even a few weeks « before » raise ‘ sufficient enriched uranium to manufacture a nuclear weapon « . While drawing a symbolic « red line » on the drawing of a bomb, representing the various steps relating to the development of Iran’s nuclear programme, Benjamin Netanyahu had justified its intervention based on data from the International Agency for Atomic Energy (IAEA). However, according to the revelations of Al-Jazeera and the Guardian, these statements were far from reality, the Prime Minister having even contradicted on the subject by its own secret services.

Less than a month after this intervention to the United Nations, the Mossad would have indeed concluded in a report, received by the South African secret services on 22 October 2012, that the Iranians did « not necessary activity » to produce such a bomb and that therefore the country appeared « not to be ready to enrich uranium to a level sufficient ». A show of dissent for the least surprising that betrays, according to our colleagues of the Guardian, the « gap » that exists between ‘the rhetoric of Israeli politicians’ and the information available to the intelligence services of the country. The publication of the secret report is more involved in a heated context marked by the visit to the United States, March 3 next, Benjamin Netanyahu who must deliver a speech, mostly centered on the Iran, before the U.S. Congress. It is rumored, between the walls of the White House that this visit would be little taste for Barack Obama .

Under all these revelations that call others, it is obvious that the disclosed information are likely to undermine further the prism of international relations, and why not in the future redistribute the cards of geopolitics.

Palestine condemned 218 million dollars for attacks in Israel

The butcher in GAZA, has the chutzpah to ask of $ 218 million for attacks in Israel circa 2001 and 2004, or, what institution, that it dates precisely, palestine can tell him exactly, or when it has used bombs a phosphates, it recognizes to have used during the conflict, when it bombed the school nursery the first, against the UN agreement,

And, dare, and ah, the pellet to 218 million dollars, but in case, for the 2000 dead in GAZA, is not $ 218 million, it is the whole fortune of the Rothschilds and rockellers, zuickerberg together, no, this guy, which should be at LAHAIE, has the chutzpah to ask them of prosperity, but I’m even more surprised that it’s secret sevice , desavou, one, with the conflict in GAZA, he became buddies, there things, that even with its money, aipac, cannot repair, especially, when certain link weighs several billion dollars and Moreover, it is true, that the feuges had a good reputation, but it has strengthened it.

Mark Rochon, a New York jury ordered Monday, the Palestinian Authority and the Organization for the Liberation of Palestine to pay the sum of 218 million dollars in damages and interest for attacks committed in Israel towards 2001 and 2004, teaches us the site for 20 minutes.

« This is not a good thing to hold the Government responsible for when some people do crazy and terrible things », said Rochon at the hearing.

The Palestinian Authority has already announced its intention to appeal. ‘ The charges against us have no basis. In addition, the New York Court ignores the previous judgments by other American courts (…) « We will appeal and we know we will win « , the Authority said in a statement at its headquarters in Ramallah in the occupied West Bank.

The attackers reportedly killed  » for their own reasons « , according to Mark Rochon, regretting  » exaggerated evidence » of the complainants, made » at the expense of the Palestinian Authority « on the basis of evidence gathered by Israeli intelligence agencies.

« This decision is above all a moral victory for the State of Israel and to the victims of terrorism », said the Israeli Minister of Foreign Affairs, Avigdor Lieberman, who surely failed to mention 2000 Palestinian victims killed in the operation of ethnic cleansing of this summer in Gaza.

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